Sunday, March 31, 2019

Three Fundamental Functions Of Business Organizations Management Essay

leash Fundamental Functions Of Business Organizations Management EssayBMW stands for Bayerisch Motoren Werke AG established in 1916. The beau monde was first known as a manufacturer of aircraft engines. In 1928, it started focusing on political machine manufacturing with the purchase of the Eisenach motor vehicle factory. The BMW 3/15 which was a version of the capital of Texas Seven, from British automaker Austin was the c individuallyers first passenger car. It operated with a 15 horsepower engine and had a top speed of 45 miles per hour. BMW began to design and work up its own cars in the 1930s. The company grittyly-developed its own engine nominate that on the wholeowed BMW to build both(prenominal) sports cars and pubs without using engines do by former(a) companies. The 327, 328 and 335 models were advanced technologically that made BMW be recognized as a major European automaker. During WWII BMW was pressure to produce motorcycles and engines for the German army. They had to stop car business until the 1950s. After WWII, BMW had to take up their car takings from zero. In 1952, they began producing the large 501 luxury sedan. It was the first car to be mass-produced in the West Germany. The successful 501 was followed by the 502 sedan in 1954 and the popular 507 roadster in 1956. This series help the company regain the prominent position for sports and luxury cars. Today BMW cars is recognized as a worldwide luxury brand with a utmost reputation for feel and by their marketing slogan, The Ultimate Driving Machine. BMW, MINI and Rolls-Royce ar three of the strongest premium brands of BMW nowadays. BMWs car is a superior crossway in basis of aesthetic appeal, dynamic performance, technology and prime(a). It underlines the companys leading position in innovation and technology. BMW Group Production Ne 2rk currently embarrasss 29 labor and assembly proposets in 14 countries on four continents with a vane of much than 12,000 supplie rs all over the world. The integration of issue and logistics system of ruless within the single BMW Group spots provides advantages for the guest. Higher efficiency in the supply of production materials helps further the delivery of cars to customers. from each one works contributes to the smooth accomplishment of the global production ne iirk.The main reparations of BMW Group Production Network includeUSA Spartanburg, southwestern Carolina.Germany Dingolfing, Berlin, Eisenach, Landshut, Munich,Regensburg and WackersdorfBrasilia Manaus.Italy CassinettaIndia ChennaiGreat Britain Goodwood, Hams Hall Oxford SwindonAustria Graz, Steyr.Indonesia JakartaRussia KaliningradMalaysia Kuala Lumpur Tai shoot RayongSouth Africa RosslynChina Shenyang (Dadong) and Shenyang (Tiexi)(Adapted from BMW group (2011) http// active_5145304_bmw-cars.html )Operations counseling as a set of ending make2.1. What picks will be compulsory and in what amount?2.1. 1. What resources will be ask?The production help is concerned with transforming a range of inputs into those outputs that atomic number 18 postulate by the market. This involves two main sets of resources the transforming resources, and the transformed resources.Transformed resources include those that argon transformed in some way by the operation to produce the goods or dos that argon its outputs. Three types of resource that may be transformed in operations arematerials the physical inputs to the branch (manufacturing)information that is being touch oned or utilize in the processcustomers the people who are transformed in some way (common in the service business)Transforming resources include those that are apply to perform the transformation process. The two types of transforming resource arestaff the people involved directly in the transformation process or actualiseing it (labour)facilities land, buildings, machines and equipment (capital)(http//www.differenc e in the midst of-transformed-resources-and-vs-transforming-resources)In the case of BMW group, the resources requirement for their car production can be summarized in table1 preferencesTypesNotesTransformed Iron, Steel, Aluminum, guard etc Energy Car Body Paint engine Other separate For the production of car proboscis, bolt, rivet, wire, seat and opposite parts etcTransforming Land Engine production plants, body shops, paint shops and assembly plants Automated machines and other connect machines Equipment and tools-Computers and supportive software Workers, managers, supervisors, inspectors-To build different types of car manufacturing plants2.1.2. In what amounts?The amounts of resources required for car manufacturing largely depends on the requirement of the product. The number of the goods/ services the company intends to produce and deliver to customers and the potpourri of products to be produced will tempt the amounts of resources dealed within a defined production system. To make decisions on the amounts of resources needed for manufacturing the product(s), operations managers should consider guardedly two elements selection of production process (operations strategy) and forecasting of collect of products/services.Selection of production process There are three basic types of production orders or processMake-to-stock (mass production) this method normally goes along with line- hightail it strategy in which high volumes of products of relatively few govern products are construct base upon relatively accurate anticipation of proximo demand for those products. This requires the firm to hold products in stock for immediate delivery. The war-ridden priorities of this method are stable tint and low cost. Since the demand for the products own been well anticipated so does the amounts of required resources (Krajewsky et al, 1999).Make-to-order this method is commonly used by firms with flexible flow that produce low-v olume, high-variety of goods/services according to customer specifications. In this direction, high level of customization is the major private-enterprise(a) priority of this method (http// (mass customization) this method is used to produce goods/services with many options from a relatively few number of assemblies and components in line with the customers specific order. Assemblies and components are held in stock until specific orders arrives. Then respective products will be assembled with reserve assemblies and components. This method is relevant to high volume and relatively high variety of good/services (Krajewsky et al, 1999). expectingIn order to determine more accurately the amounts of resources needed for the product/service the organization is to offer to the market, it is life-sustaining to forecast the demand of this product/service. Demand forecast is usually developed by the marketing department an d its accuracy will be the all important(p) element of the success of strength wariness plans implemented by operations. Forecast provides a strong basis for determining the capital invested in the plants, machines and equipment, get the office amount of materials and employing the skilful amount of labour (Albert Porter, 2010).Production methods and capacity planning of BMW group as means to define amounts of resources needed.In price of production method, BMWs leading production principles includes horizontal and vertical integration of functions, police squad work organisation, visual management, built in quality processes, pull system of procurement and continuous improvement. This can be seen as a cross production system with a strong German element in product, production technologies and quality standards, a strong part of Japanese principles in process and work organisation and an American part of vertical management hierarchy. BMWs production greet is characterize d with high quality, high productivity and high product flexibility which is closed to the mass customization model of production (Ludger Pries, 2002). With this production approach today BMW produces at least 80 percent of its vehicles to customer orders.(http// regards to capacity planning BMW develops a well-elaborated strategical-planning process where products and sales are forecast beforehand production capacity planning. Derived from the results of market research, planners decide on the set of next products and estimated sales figures during their life cycle for different geographical markets with the necessary flexibility reserves (i.e. difference between expected demand and available capacity based on their experience). This serves as data for plant loading in which planners allocate the products to the plants and determine the required production capacities including future am ount of resources needed and the way to procure them (Bernhard Fleischmann, 2006).2.2. When will each resource be needed? When should the work be scheduled? When should materials and other supplies be ordered? When is corrective action needed?All those above questions are connected with materials management, scheduling and quality laterality the operations manager should carefully consider once the production process is put in place. tame Scheduling Plan and Work SchedulingForecast of future demand of sales helps companies set up an overall production capacity plan which in turn tailored into Master Scheduling Plans (MSP) with an intermediate timeline where the total of specific end-products and the time to produce them are defined. It is the major view as of all production activities. To create an MSP, it is important for managers to know where materials are located and how they flow at every step in the production process. For this purpose, they determine the routing of all mat erials-that is, the work flow of each item based on the period of operations in which it will be used ( indigo plant Kumar et al, 2009). On the other hand, as it is necessary for managers to fudge the timing of all operations, they have to build work schedules for this purpose. Scheduling allocates resources over time to perform specific line of works (Krajewsky et al, 1999). Managers determine jobs to be performed during the production process, allocate tasks to work groups, set timetables for the accomplishment of task and ensure that resources are to be adequately provided when and where they are in need. both most popular techniques used in scheduling are Gantt and orthogonal charts (http// controlIt is disastrous if a manufacturer runs out of the materials it inescapably for production. However, keeping large inventories of materials is wasting money because the firm has to pay for those materials in stock and find places to store them. Therefore, to remain competitive, firms have to manage inventories efficiently. They need to ensure the availability of materials for production and at the same time non to waste money due to large inventory. Achieving the balance between those two risks rests on the inventory management and control. There are three types of inventories including (i) rough materials (ii) purchased goods and (iii) finished parts and components. The various types of inventory to maintain the continuity in the production process is illustrated in fig 1.InventoryRaw materials physical processInventoryParts + Purchased itemsProcessFinished productsMarketInventory frame 1 Inventory of materials ( are two common inventory-control methods as followsJust-in-TimeIt is seen as the modern concept of inventory planning where the materials should be purchased and brought in the stores just before it enters the production or sold out s o that inventory cost is negligible. The zero inventories are the ideal planning because the cost of holding inventory are significantly cut. JIT, however, requires considerable communication and cooperation between the manufacturer and the supplier. The manufacturer has to know what it needs, and when. The supplier has to commit to supplying the ripe materials, of the right quality, at exactly the right time (Albert Porter, 2010)..Material Requirements planHowever, in the present situations in any of the organization particularly manufacturingorganization, it is not absolutely possible to keep no inventory of materials required for production. another(prenominal) inventory control method is commonly used called Material Requirements plan (MRP). The MRP is a technique relies on a computerized program both to direct the amount of materials needed for production starting from the raw materials, finished parts, components, sub-assemblies and assemblies as per Bill of Materials (B OM) and to determine when they should be ordered or made to support a Master Production Schedule (MPS) (Krajewsky et al, 1999 Anil Kumar et al, 2009).The basic MRP focuses on material planning, but there is a more sophisticated system-called Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II)manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)System for coordinating a firms material requirements planning activities with the activities of its other functional areas.-that goes beyond material planning to help supervise resources in all areas of the company. Such a program can, for instance, coordinate the production schedule with Human Resource managers forecasts for needed labor ( controlQuality control of materialsThe quality of the product largely depends upon the quality of the materials used to produce that product. Therefore, it is a very important for the firm to purchase the right quality of materials. Quality control of materials aims at del ivering product at high quality with lower cost. It in like manner helps decide the selection of suppliers and the relationship between buyers and suppliers. In quality control, the quality assurance is decided by revaluation and checking. The various properties of materials are decided by the standards they should follow.( add quality managementToday, quality is an efficient weapon firms use to compete with their rivals in the market. Total Quality Management (TQM) or quality assurance includes all managerial steps that firms take to ensure that its goods or services are of high quality to adequately meet customers need). TQM encompasses the following three principlesCustomer -driven commentary of quality firms encourage customers to tell them how to make the right product. Firms also atomic number 82 customers feedback about their products (via surveys and other methods) to know what they need to improve.Employee involvement c ommitment of employee in ensuring quality of their tasks and in detecting and correcting quality problems is very important. Training and other tools will help employee be actively involved in quality assurance process.Continuous improvement the commitment to making constant improvements in the design, production, and delivery of goods and services ((Krajewsky et al, 1999).A range of tools have been developed to control quality and indentify areas of improvement much(prenominal) as Statistical Process Control, Benchmarking and Taguchis Quality Lost Function method.In addition, a set of standards called ISO has been devised by the International Organization for Standardization to help companies comply with quality credentials standards and get recognition worldwide. There are a set of standards ISO 9000 family for quality management and ISO 14000 for environmental management.(http// Manag ement and Quality Management at BMWBMW forecasts their new products and demand of sale for capacity planning and allocate the products to their plants worldwide. Each plant then develops the MSP based upon the new orders and demand of sales. The MSP determines explicitly the quantity and the time of the resources (materials and capacity) needed based on the sequence of operations. In terms of inventory management, since BMW adopts a hybrid production system, MRP is used to calculate the quantity of materials needed for production and to determine when they should be ordered or manufactured with the integration of JIT principle to reduce inventory. In each location, BMW manufacturing plant establishes a network of first tier suppliers located nearby, for instance the Spartanburg plant has 18 first tier suppliers that are located in the nearby industrial park and committed to provide ordered materials and components with high quality and right in time. E-orders and purchasing are use d to communicate and do the doing with its suppliers. As a result, buffers between body shop and painting is18 units and between painting and assembly is120 units. The suppliers are forced to recompense the rigidity of the production system with their own and extensive buffer (Ludger Pries). This mixed inventory control method allows BMW to develop a mass customization production system characterised with high quality, high productivity but also high flexibility.Quality is the strongest competitive advantage of BMW cars. For BMW to achieve premium quality, it is important to recognize any defects/mistakes before production begins and to correct them. Therefore the company has adopted sophisticated computer-aid quality inspection technology to control the quality of purchased parts, engines and all the semi-products and components going from the press, body shop to the final assembly with start-of-the-art inspection device such as 3D CAD, mobile optical TRITOPCMM system (http//www.c Computer-aided inspection systems contribute significantly to saving rework time, optimizing processes and thereby reducing production costs. BMW group also complies to ISO 9000 and IS014000 for quality and environmental management system ((Ludger Pries, 2002).2.3. Where will the work be done?The selection of plant location or facility location is a key strategic decision for an organization. The location decision is pricey and time consuming to change. This is because large investment is made to buy the land and to construct buildings. Companys competitiveness will be affected by its location since it will impact costs such as transportation and labour. faulty location of a plant may lead to loss of competitiveness, and lastly waste of all investments put in land, buildings and machinery. Therefore, before making decision for the selection of a plant location, long range forecast about the future demands should be made. The plant location should be based on the firms expansion plan and policy, diversification plan of products, changing market conditions, changing sources of raw materials and other resources and many other factors.The key following factors are seen important for location decision law of proximity to customers (extremely important in service business)Proximity to suppliersProximity to labourInfrastructure and transportation availability (Albert Porter, 2010 Anil Kumar et al, 2009).BMW group and its worldwide plant locationsNeedless to say, BMW group has seen the development of its plant location worldwide network as a key strategic planning to enhance its competitiveness in the automobile global market. From their prevalent position in Europe with their plants located in strategic countries such as Germany (its headquarter), Britain, Austria and Italia, the company spread their manufacturing to strategic countries of all over other continents (except Australia) for instance the US for North America, Brasilia for South America, South Africa for Africa, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thai for Southeast Asia, India for East Asia and recently China for North Asia. In each country, BMW has meticulously identified most suitable area for the location of their strategic manufacturing plant corresponding to their expansion plan and policy and the diversification of their products. Proximity to suppliers, labour and the land, infrastructure and labour availability are factors the group unceasingly considers when making plan location decision.

Earthquake In Japan Causes The Tsunami Engineering Essay

hide outquake In lacquer Causes The Tsunami Engineering examineABSTRACTEarthquake in Japan causes the tsunami happen near the Fukushima atomic mightiness berth on 11th litigate 2011 shocked of the world. every reactors that have ceased operations automatically as soon as tremors spy. electrical dodging lasture and too shake the reactor aplomb formation causing an unprecedented fusillade in the Fukushima lay. Hydrogen explosion occurred at Reactor Buildings that contain atoms known as hot hazardous.Radioactive began to col virtually the station as far as 20 km to 30 km. delinquent to the Japanese governing body had warned residents and in do-gooder advice on the environ ara to circulate to the plain far from the radioactive.In a get along report impart inform industrial process and operation, impact of the Fukushima thermo thermo thermo atomic mishap to the society, Ecology, Sociology, health and actions also rates Taken by capital of Japan Electric advocate Company (TEPCO),http// Fukushima I thermo thermo atomic Power Plant, nuclear causation prove located on a 3.5-square-kilometre (860-acre) in the towns of Okuma and Futaba in the Futaba District of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan (Tohoku offshore in the Pacific). First commissioned in 1971, the embed consists of six boiling water reactors (BWR). These light water reactors drove electrical beginnings with a combined power of 4.7 GWe, making Fukushima Daiichi one of the 15 largest nuclear power stations in the world. Fukushima I was the first nuclear plant to be designed, constructed and run in conjunction with General Electric, Boise, and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)This temblor is the mega thrust seism of magnitude 9.0 undersea (Mw) which originates in Japan offshore epicenter located about 70 kilometers (43 mi) eastward of the Oshika Peninsula Tohoku with a depth of about 32 km (20 bt) in the sea. This is the near powerful temblor known to have hit the Japanese, and one of the strongest quake in the world since modern record-keeping beginning in 1900. This quake has triggered a monster tsunami that reached a height of 40.5 meters (133 ft) in Miyako, Iwate of the Tohoku Region, and swept inland as far as 10 km (6 mi) inland in the Sendai area. This earthquake has turned the island of Honshu 2.4 m (8 ft) to the east as well as tilting the Earth on its axis by 10 cm (4 in.) to 25 cm (10 in). According to TEPCO reports a total of 37 with physical injuries, 2 workers taken to hospital with radiotherapy burns. later on the interrogation is no person or employee of the station die struck radiation.Some problems also arise in Fukushima Daini station, which houses four (4) reactors, social unit No. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Four units at Fukushima Daini station is operated in th e period 1982-1987, and all is well BWR. Four units are also in operation during the circumstance of two earthquakes, and all operations will stop automatically when the vibration is detected.Although the earthquake and tsunami did non affect the bodily expression of the reactor make in all units. Serious incident occurred at Units 1, 2 and 3 of the Fukushima Daiichi as the results of the external power stations are required reactor cool down pool and nuclear fuel storage. by power outage outdoor, sine qua non generators began operating. Once the tank is washed diesel generator by the tsunami generator fails to operate because then stopped by cooling the reactor carcass.Sample of nuclear operationWhen all three cooling constitution is not operating, the pressure increase in the reactor without control. The eminent pressure is caused by the boiling water in the reactor has been the absence seizure of an emergency cooling system, and which also contain rates of atomic numbe r 1 swagger generated from the reaction of s tea leafm and dangerous radiation in the core reactor. The hydrogen gas occurs when water molecules (H2O) lost due to radiation, to produce hydrogen and oxygen. As a result of the opening of the valve element extract cesium (cesium) that released irradiation was detected first reactor and around Fukushima Daiichi station. This explosion of a phaseing external hydrogen scheme does not affect the primary containment structure (primary containment) and the secondary reactor (secondary containment). Therefore, more than serious radioactive leak has been avoided, nevertheless part of the nuclear fuel in the reactor core warming was suspected (partial melt-down).Therefore, the Prime minister of Japan has expanded emptying orders to 10 kilometers of Fukushima Daini station. Injection of seawater mixed with boric acid into the reactor Unit 1 at Fukushima Daiichi March 12, 2011, and continued until now. Boric acid intend to absorb neutron s in nuclear reactions in the reactor so that it lav be stopped continue to achieve cold shutdown (cold shut-down) form.OverviewThe earthquake and tsunami 11th March 2011 natural casualtys that shocked the whole world. Fukushima nuclear hap in the past year was characterized as a man-made tragedy and not apparently due to the tsunami, according to a Japanese parliamentary panel in a lowest report on the chance. attract from the tsunami happened was an un pass judgment sluicet involving nuclear reactors causing hydrogen gas explosion in the reactor defecateing.The disaster that struck Japans Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station on March 11, 2011, caused the well-nigh extensive release of radioactivity the terminal at Fukushima was initiated by natural disasters a huge earthquake and tsunami kinda than equipment failure and human error. The tsunami knocked out backup power systems that were needed to cool the reactors at the plant, causing several of them to undergo fue l melting, hydrogen explosions, and radioactive releases.Studies of the Fukushima disaster have identified design changes, response actions, and other rubber eraser improvements that could have reduced or eliminated the amount of radioactivity released from the plant. As a result, Fukushima has prompted a re-examination of nuclear plant sentry duty requirements around the world, including the join States.Identifies whether the Fukushima nuclear disaster is natural or man-made. Clearly explain your justification.In investigations of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation utter the Japanese government and TEPCO separate that failing to prevent the disaster is not as large tsunami is not expected, but because they refuse to invest time, effort and money in protect against natural disasters is considered im come-at-able. The panel system is not enough to blame the jurisprudence for managing the nuclear crisis, crisis chaos, direction caused by the government and TEPCO, and excessive intervention possible in the Prime Ministers office in the early stages of the crisis. Panel also said that cultural complacency about nuclear safety and sad crisis management led to a nuclear disaster. With the Fukushima nuclear accident decision year has been characterized as a man-made disaster and not simply due to the tsunami, according to Japanese parliamentary panel in its final report on the disaster. By TEPCO mentioned, the size of the earthquake and tsunami exceeded expectations and can not be predicted to be the main cause of the problem.Japanese Prime Minister apologized to the Fukushima nuclear crisis in the country.Industrial process and operation of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plantUnit 1 is a 439 MW boiling water reactor (BWR3) was rein strained in July 1967. Began producing commercial electricity March 26, 1971, and was scheduled to close in March, 2011.Ia damaged during Sendai earthquake and 2011 tsunami. The reactor has a high level of safety and earthquake atom when made, but now both old and outdated. No one knows how bad the earthquake could occur in Japan. Unit 1 is designed for peak ground motion earthquake shakes acceleration of 0.18 g (1.74 m/s2) and seismic response spectra based on Kern County earthquake 1952. All units were inspected after the 1978 Miyagi earthquake when the ground acceleration seismic 0.125 g (1.22 m/s2) for 30 seconds, but no damage to the critical come upon of the reactor has been found.And fukushima daiichi unit 2, 3, and 4 is a 784 MW boiling water reactor (BWR). But was commercial operation on July 1974(unit 2), Mac 1976(unit 3), and October 1978(unit 4)Impact of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disasterFrom the survey we found that Radiation from Japans Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster may eventually cause anywhere from 15 to 1,300 deaths and from 24 to 2,500 cases of cancer, broadly speaking in Japan, Stanford researchers have calculated.Estimates have a large uncertainty, but the ancestry with earlier claims that radioactive emission is unlikely to cause serious health effects. The numbers are in addition to the 600 deaths caused by the evacuation of the area around the nuclear plant immediately after, March 2011 earthquake and tsunami crisis.In March 2011, Japanese officials announced that radioactive iodie-131 exceeding safety limits for infants had been detected in 18 water treatments plants in Tokyo and other provinces. As in July 2011, the Japanese government has been able to contain the spread the radioactive material into the nations food. Radioactive material has been detected in variety of outcomes, including spinach, tea leaves, milk, fish, and meat, up to 200 kilometres from the nuclear plant. In the 12 kilometre evacuation zone around the plant, all farming was abandonedThe Fukushima Daiichi meltdown was the most extensive nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. Radiation release critically contaminate a dead zone of several hundred square kilometres around the plant, and low levels of radioactive material were found as far as North America and Europe. But the most of the radioactivity was dumped in the Pacific, moreover 19 percent of the released material was deposits over land and keeping the unresolved population relatively small. There are groups of people who have said there would be no effects.A month after the disaster, the encephalon of the United Nations science committee on the effects of atomic radiation, for example, predicted that there would be no serious public health consequences resulting from the radiation sketch the actions taken by (TEPCO), government and the regulatory body during the occurrence of the Fukushima nuclear disaster.Catastrophic Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulting humanitarian crisis and a ravage economic impact. The tragedy of 300,000 residents pinchd to leave their homes in the tohoku region, in addition to the lack of food, water, shelter, medicine and fuel for sur vivors. To address the crisis, the Japanese government move him self defense forces, while many countries sent search and deport teams to lacquer to help search for survivors. Aid organizations in and outside lacquer also responded, especially the Japanese Red Cross society branches that report donations of $ 1 billion.Prime Minister Kan visited the plant for a briefing on 12 March. He had been quoted in the press calling for calm and minimizing magnify reports of danger. Kan met with Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) on 15 March and lamented the lack of schooling. According to press accounts, he asked, what the hell is going on? Secretary of Government Yukio Edano stated around 18 March, We could have travel a little quicker in assessing the particular.The Japanese government asked the United States to provide cooling equipment to the plant. As of 15 march, the U.S had provided 3,265 kilograms (7,200 lb) of special equipment, a conflagration truck to help monitor and asse ss the situation at the plant. The French nuclear accident reponse organization Groupe INTRA shipped some of its radiation-hardened mobile robot equipment to japan to help with the nuclear accident. At least 130 tonnes of equipment has been shipped to japan. Japan necessitate that Russia send landysh, a floating water decontamination facility originally reinforced with Japanese funding and intended for decommissioning nuclear submarines.After advocates building more reactors, Prime Minister Naoto Kan took increasingly anti-nuclear stance in the months following the Fukushima disaster. In May, he ordered the aging Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant be closed over earthquake and tsunami fears, and said he would freeze plans to build new reactorsFormer chiefs of pick out nuclear safety commissions and government agencies hav apologized for dominating important nuclear safety concerns.The Japanese government has admitted it failed to keep records of key meetings during the Fukushima nuclear crisis. Such detailed notes are considered a key office of disaster managementEffective preventive action to be modify by TEPCOQuite a number of issues exist, which need highly alter nuclear knowledge over a wide range for result technical and nuclear engineering problems concerning the emergency responses to the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS, and the then-available disaster preparedness by the government, TEPCO and other organizations. These issues should be reviewed and resolved, results being shaped into cover actions, through competent knowledge by stakeholders in nuclear power generation. In doing so, they should sincerely take into consideration the recommendations the Investigation. Committee has made and they should do so with accountability to society for its process and results.TEPCO has been pursuing the reduction of risks of nuclear disasters from various perspectives. However, as summarized in the of import Report, almost all functions of the facilities that were expected to operate for accident response were lost in this accident due to the effect of the tsunami which was an unprecedented scale. Since the frameworks and procedure manual for accident response were developed on the premise of using such facilities, responses at the field were forced to adapt to the sudden change of circumstances and they became extremely difficult.As a result, TEPCO was unable to prevent the reactor core damage, which the company regrets deeply. After actually encountering this tsunami, TEPCO now sincerely reflects upon its lack of sufficient prior preparedness, and is resolute to steadily put in place countermeasures that are compiled in the Main Report based upon the lessons learned this time.ConclusionIn conclusion I would like to propose some recommendation and awareness regarding this Fukushima daiichi nuclear disaster matterFor reforming the crisis management system for a nuclear disaster. Learning from the sire as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS, the crisis management system for a nuclear disaster should be urgently reformed, in which the nuclear emergency response manual should be revised assuming an occurrence of a complex disaster combining an earthquake/tsunami disaster and a nuclear accident. In its reforming process, the strengthening of response capabilities of off-site centers, which are alleged(a) to serve as the base for response during a nuclear emergency (hereafter simply referred to as off-site centers), is needed. In addition, it is also required to build a crisis management system by examining how to respond to a situation which a Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters cannot cargo area by convening personnel from relevant emergency response bodies.for the nuclear emergency response headquarters-The emergency response headquarters should, in general, be located close to the accident site where the relevant randomness is easy to obtain in a nuclear emergency, and the ac tivities at the accident site are easy to grasp. To promptly collect accurate teaching is, needless to say, the fundamental principle in a nuclear emergency. The government emergency response headquarters should be set up in a way which enables the government people access to the necessary information while staying in government facilities like the Prime Ministers Office, without moving to the nuclear operators head office.For the manipulations of the prefectural government in nuclear emergency responses.-In a nuclear disaster, the prefectural government should take a responsible role in front, because the damage can extend to a regional size. The nuclear disaster prevention plan should take this point into account.for improving radiation monitoring operations-To ensure that the monitoring system does not fail at critical moments, and to ensure the collection of data and other functions, the system should be designed against various possible events, including not only an earthquak e but also a tsunami, storm surge, flood, sediment disasters, volcanic eruptions and gale force winds. Measures should be taken to prevent the system from functional failures even in a complex disaster simultaneously involving two or more such events. Furthermore, measures should be developed to facilitate the relocation of monitoring vehicles and their patrols even in a situation where an earthquake has damaged roads.-Training sessions and other knowledge opportunities should be enhanced to raiseawareness of the functions and importance of the monitoring system among competent authorities and personnel.http// commendation.pdf

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Tescos strategy of expansion into China

Tescos outline of expansion into mainland chinawarePresent an insightful evaluation of the general outline and one specific aspect of its external dodging. To do this you should analyse the monetary aptitude of the business. You strike to use recent data. You need to draw on an appropriate literature. Key issues for managers need to be clear identified. You need to show how the specific outline fits into the ball-shaped plan. You need to pay back your business relationship against the background of current global business challenges. You need to impart and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the schema.For example, Tescos strategy of expansion into chinaThis report outlines the opportunities go about Tesco as a result of its internationalist expansion strategy in Asia way on its current expansion in chinaware.LayoutStart with an executive summary.e.g. This way report sets out to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and th reats associated with Tescos strategy of spliting a hygienic carriage in the sell securities industry in China. The specific strategy that is explored is that of developing four storey shop snappers. The move into China is part of a generic addition strategy by Tesco, particularly focussing on great(p) emerging food markets. The report shows that there ar significant opportunities in a market that was deserving 600 billion in 2010. Challenges facing management involve making for sure that all of the primary activities in the judge chain atomic number 18 efficacious and effective, and developing on-going relationships in China to ensure a pagan fit between Tescos objectives, and strategies and those of stakeholders in China.Next introduce your government.1.Tesco as an organisationTescos scopeToday Tesco is an international retailer of plate goods, food, and clothing, as well as providing a delivery service and banking service in more or less markets. Tescos home market is the UK, but since 2005 the corporation has increasely been developing its presence in new markets particularly continental Europe, the United States and Asia (including Thailand, South Korea, Indonesia and China).Tescos emulous strengthTesco is soon the worlds third largest international retailer after Wal-Mart and Carrefour. However, a recent report (2008, Global Retailing Preparing for Change, IGD) forecasted that by 2012 Tesco will be in second base position with an estimated growth rate of 12% comp atomic number 18d with Carrefours 7%. Tescos strength rests in providing value for money offers supported by sozzled leagues, and an effective supply chain.2.Tescos strategiesTescos generic strategyTesco has five main elements to its strategy. It is the set-back of these elements that this assignment focuses on in particular. The five airfields are1.To be an international retailer2.To maintain a strong core UK business3.To be as strong in non-food as in food4.To de velop retailing service5.And to put the community of interests at the inwardness of everything we do.The retailing market in the UK has become saturated. Tesco is the leading player in this market account for 1 in every 7 of grocery sales. However, the potence to increase growth in the UK is limited faced by increasing saturation of the market and intense competition. Tesco is therefore increasingly focussing on the development of new international markets. This includes the development of Fresh n clear stores in the US, and a range of new hypermarket skeletonats in Asia.2.2 Tescos strategy for ChinaTesco has targeted China as a particularly important growth opportunity.Tesco entered the Chinese market in 2004 by forming a 5050 supplyship with Ting Hsin Internal Group (with existing retailing outlets). Shenkar and Luo (p.319) argue that partner selection is widely recognised as a vital figure in Global Strategy Alliance success. They believe that benefits will that accrue fin ished the retention of a partner that can offer the complementary skills, competencies, or capabilities that will assist the firm in accomplishing its strategic objectives. Ting Hsins competencies included existing experience in the Chinese market, and strong links with topical anesthetic and regional government. Ting Hsin was able to provide Tesco with pick out how in relation to local run conditions (include local laws, and customer patterns). By 2006 Tesco was able to increase its stake in the partnership to a 9010 relationship. In 2008 Tesco rebranded its stores as Tesco Legou (Happy Shopping) to localise the branding of the product. Fateh, K (2008. p.355) identifies the value for multinationals of developing hybrid international strategies combining global integration with legion country focus. Tescos rebranding and focus on meeting the needs of local customers in China makes it possible to support locally veritable products with the vast marketing and pecuniary resource s of Tescos headquarters office.3 Tesco in China3.1 Features of the market in ChinaCurrently grocery sales in China are worth 600 billion (2010). There are 221 cities in China that are predicted to view more than one million inhabitants by 2025 compared with 35 in Europe now. It is urban dwellers in large cities that provide the target market for Tesco in China. In urban areas in China obtain malls lead become particularly popular locations for supermarkets. In China there are fewer cars than in the UK (2 per 100 population). Tesco has already opened four life blank space shopping centres.A lifespace shopping centre is made up of four floors. The basic floor contains the Tesco hypermarket. The other floors contain other shopping premises that whitethorn be leased to other companies to sell their goods often clothes and household items such as furniture.3.2 Expansion in ChinaTesco is expecting to quadruple its one-year sales in China between 2010 and 2015. The current strategy is to take 50 shopping malls in China by 2015 and to develop a supercharge 30.3.3 The advantages of the joint venture formatTescos partnership with Ting Hsin took the form of a joint venture set up for the purpose of ongoing cooperation (Stonehouse, G p.271). Ting Hsin already had 25 up market mall type stores in 25 locations. Tesco was therefore able to benefit from this strong presence in the market in China. The benefits for Ting Hsin related to Tescos global buying power, reputation and the strength of finance that Tesco could bring to the table.4.Tescos monetary strength4.1 sales and profitsTescos 2010 Income Statement showed a sales r chargeue of 57 billion from which it generated run profits of 3.4 billion.Tescos current strategy is that of growth. This growth strategy is built on sales growth. For the last ten years Tesco has generated operating margins in the UK of roughly 6%. However, sales growth in the UK is relatively slow. In the second quarter of 2010 sales gr owth in the UK was 5.3% (Tesco Income Statement, October 2010).4.2 Tescos financial strength in AsiaThe first two Asiatic markets that Tesco entered since 2000 were Thailand and South Korea. Tesco is currently making operating margins in these countries of 5%.The table below highlights Tescos financial position in AsiaSales and profits 2010 (Source Tesco Operating Report 2010)Asia Sales 5,725mAsia trading profit 228mAsia trading margin 4.6%Tesco is particularly interested in developing its presence in Asia. In the most recent yearly comp any(prenominal) review (2010), the Chief Executive statedOur important Asian markets in particular are emerging strongly fromrecession.In contrast, he pointed out that economic recovery in the UK is slow and steady.In the second quarter of 2010 Tesco reported the following figures for sales growthUK 5.3%Group 8.8%Asia 27.7%4.3 Tescos financial strength in ChinaIn 2010 Tescos sales in China were worth 848m. The company reported that it was on the ve rge of breaking til now in China. Tescos current strategy in China is to build 50 shopping malls in China by 2015 and to develop a further 30.5 Tescos trading operations in China5.1 Tescos focus areasTescos original strategy involved focussing on three regional areas. These were urban center areas in which average incomes were relatively high and in which consumers were already exposed to international influences. The three areas were Shanghai as a hub for operations in east China, Beijing in the North and Guangzhou in the South.5.2 Core competencys in ChinaTesco already source many products which go into its stores across the globe from Chinese manufacturers. It sources $1.1 billion of products from China a year. Tesco therefore has built strong relationships with local suppliers in China. Tesco has had many years of experience as a large retailer in developing supply contracts with suppliers in the UK. This is thus a core competence (Prahalad and Hamel, 1990) of the organisati on. Core competences are those attributes of an organisation that give ita distinct advantage over competitors. Other core competences that Tesco has built in China include centralised distribution centres. These reduce the numbers of deliveries ask to individual stores, thus resulting in impregnable cost savings. Tesco has also developed own brand products for China the value brand, and Tesco Legou.Another core competence is that of developing relationships. This fits in with Tescos strategy of putting the community at the heart of everything we do (Tesco Strategy document). Tesco has 58 stores in 22 cities in China. The company employs 17,600 staff, 99% of whom are local to the store.Tescos experience of driving value through all aspects of the value chain (Porter, 1974) in the UK pick out been applied to its operations in China including the organisation of inbound and outbound logistics, supermarket operations, market investigate and customer service.6 Management issues fa cing Tesco6.1 Cultural complexityA key issue facing Tesco management in developing operations in China relates to levels of cultural complexity. Fateh (p.132) distinguishes between countries with low context cultures corresponding the United Kingdom and countries with high context cultures such as China. The clog facing British managers in works in China is that whatsoever meanings and interpretations of events are not explicitly stated. This was an important reason for Tesco to create a joint venture partnership as a market entry strategy. By working with Chinese partners and Chinese managers Tesco has been able to deal with issues associated with cultural complexity and to develop strong networks of relationships within the local communities in which its stores have been sited.6.2 Potential areas for difficultyCarrefour and other international supermarket chains operating in China have had difficulties in some areas with regards to gaining planning license and licences to ope rate from local authorities. Initially Chinese government policy was to tho allow Foreign Direct Investment in the sector in collaboration with a local partner. Although this requirement has since been relaxed Tesco has chosen to work tight with its local partner in order to develop strong community relationships and thus an ongoing licence to operate in the regions were its malls are cited.7.Evaluation of the strategy7.1 Break-even pointTescos has announced that it is currently at the point of breaking even in China ( financial Times, 2010). Today, Tesco recognise Asia as being the major area for its international growth strategy. This compares with ten years ago when the company was well-nigh exclusively a UK retailer. The position is quite different today as shown by Tescos presence in AsiaNumber of stores (2010)UK 215Asia 186Sales area space (ooo square feet)UK 31,285Asia 28,838Operating margins are slightly higher in the UK when compared with Asia (about 1p in the higher), h owever, sales growth is much faster in Asia. Thailand and South Korea have already proved to be profitable markets for Tesco.7.2 Competitive challengesThe challenge facing Tesco in China is that it is a highly competitive market. Tesco is not the entirely company developing local partnership arrangements. Tesco has committed a substantial portion of its cash reserves and profits into investing in China. As shown in this report there are substantial economies of scale to be achieved by operating in central locations in Chinas thriving city areas. Key issues that managers need to face include ensuring ongoing strong relations with local partners and employees. Tescos competitive success rests in providing value for money products with relatively cheap prices. These competitive strengths go down well with Chinese consumers flavor for value for money.7.3 Credibility challengesDeveloping links in China requires working closely with local government authorities, and construction compani es to develop new malls. It is indwelling that Tesco makes sure that the quality of workmanship on these new malls is to the highest planning and safety standards. It is essential in sourcing products from local suppliers to ensure that all products meet the same levels of safety standards that Tesco employs in its other outlets across the globe. The market in China is potentially the most substantial on the globe. Tesco already sources substantial quantities of its supplies from Chinese manufacturers. There is thus every possibility that Tescos international strategy of growth will yield high sales revenues and profits in China. manakin references.You need to reference all of the texts that you include in your work.E.g.Fatehi, K, (2008) Managing Internationally, Succeeding in a Culturally Diverse World, Sage, London.You also need to reference any information you get directly from company reports and websites.E.g.Tesco, 2010, Annual Report and Financial Statements.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Observing the behaviour of consumers while shopping

observe the deportment of consumers while shopThis search is based on an synopsis of seek observations which took place at a Supermarket in Bradford. The aim of the shape was to observe the behaviour of consumers while shopping in instal to presuppose and draw conclusions from our observations most consumer acquire behaviour when shopping. As a mode of interpreting and analysing the info we used the psychoanalytical perspective of Freud, taunt occasion and independent and mutualist ego concept. These concepts particularly lend themselves to the interpretation of the data. This essay begins by defining these key concepts out front offering an analysis data the research data.Freudian per male childality theory is otherwise known as the psychoanalytic theory and it is practically used by marketers to wreak the purchasing decisions of customers in an unconscious way (Bettany, 2011 and Solomon, 2011). The theory is composed of three cat egories to wit the id, the supe rego and the ego. The id harmonise to Freud is part of our unconscious existence as it functions with regards to the joy rule the pleasure is applicable to the id as it tastes immediate gratification of involve (Bettany, 2011 and Solomon, 2011). Hoch and Loewestein (1991498) take aim that the id is the primary process of thinking that is impulsive, stingy and illogical whose aim is to seek pleasure only, avoid pain and not at all maladjusted about the consequences of its actions (Solomon, 2011). Similarly, Hoch and Loewestein (1991498) note that the ego is secondary process thinking that uses the world principle and acts as a mediator surrounded by the id and the superego. Next is the ego which is aw atomic number 18 of the consequences of an action and when it is unable to manage the action a remainder between the id and the superego results and the individual gets anxious (Bettany, 2011). The superego on the other hand is the internalised sentience of justice, a perso ns moral smack of right and wrong and it is developed last (Solomon, 2011 Bettany, 2011). The superego is derived from the values and ethical motive a child learnt from their interaction with society, family and friends.Whereas as Freud psychoanalytical theory could be applied to both children and adults in terms of explaining consumers behaviours pester antecedent on the other hand is primarily bear on with childrens behaviours. It fanny be delimit as a childs attempts to exert influence over pargonntal acquire in a repetitive and some terms confrontational manner Nicholls and Cullen (200477). some other definition of pester power is presented by Procter and Richards (20023) which aims it is the repeated delivery of unwished-for requests. What this means is that parents are bombarded with requests, gestures and pleas from their children to buy items such as foods, toys and clothes. Most often children who carry out this act get what they necessitate (Nicholls and Cullens , 2004). Children might be influenced by either their peers at school (Smithers, 2010) or by advertisements seen on the television (Chandler and Heinzerling, 1998, Smithers, 2010). This framework was used because of our interest in how children influence the buying power of their parents. The final theoretical framework employed in this essay is the dependent and independent self-concept. The interdependent self-concept has been defined in terms of eyesight unrivalledself as part of an encompassing blood and recognizing that onenesss behaviour is determined, contingent on and, to a large extent, organised by what the actor perceives to be the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others in the relationship (Markus and Kitayama, 1991, p. 227). Markus and Kitayama (1991, 1994) regard the independent self-concept as bounded, unitary, stable, autonomous, individualist, egocentric, self-contained, separate, and detached from the social context. This self-concept is sensed as a distinc tive configuration of traits, thoughts and feelings that regulate individual behaviour and underlie individual strivings towards the fulfillment of personal goals such as realising oneself (Milland and Reynolds, 2011).The id is perspicuoused in a indulge girl who would not stop crying despite the fact her dumbfound rocked her while she was in the tramway, called out her name and utter to her. Since her basic desire to maximise pleasure has not been met, she cried continuously. People some the family recognised the child was an infant in occupy of her arrives attention they did not mind and instead went about their business.The eldest son aged between 3-5 years has matured from the id stage to the ego. This was seen by the actions he dis vie when he listened intently to his mothers instruction and returned the LEGO sand to the shelf. He understood the reality of the situation and completed the consequence was not pleasant. The ego be the reality principle ensures the ids necessarily are met in a realistic manner (Solomon, 2011). Although initially he insisted on having his way, that is to say, wanted his mother to buy the toy for his friend, realising she would not adventure down from her position, he relented and obeyed her instructions. In this event the mother prevailed.The eldest son would beget developed his superego and this act as a moral conscience in him with regards to dictating a sense of wrong and right (Solomon, 2011). The moral lesson taught by his mother manifested when he realised his mother would not buy the LEGO, he obeyed her and returned it. In relation to the accepted behaviour in the store, the mother did not seem to mind that her eldest son had left her side to fragment up a LEGO in the toy aisle. This might indicate that the mother sees the child as independent to a certain degree. The child in demonstrating his independent to his mother by listens to her and responding appropriately seemed to give her a sense of pleasure .The id also appeared to be apparent in a boy who was pushed some the supermarket by his aunt. The thrill of being pushed was heard in his shouts of excitement, laughing and shouting again, again after his aunt stopped. The boy clearly relished this moment as he seeks pleasure. He operates according to the pleasure principle and was not concerned that his aunt was exhausted and desireed a break.Another exemplar, of the manifestation of the id was a crying boy in his push curb, even though he was comforted by his mother, he kept on crying because his need for sleep was not met. Maslow hierarchy of need is also relevant in explaining this example. According to Maslow sleep is regarded as one of the most basic of needs only this mother also wanted to get on with her shopping because it gave her a sense of satisfaction even pleasure in seek to get together two another basic psychological needs which are food and security (Blackwell et al 2006). Later on, one came across the ak in woman and her son who was fast asleep in his push chair while his mother continued with her shopping in peace.Closely relate to but different from the psychological theory of Freud is the concept of pester power. In this example, one came across a mother who has three children. The infant a baby girl and small son who were seated in the trolley the mother was busy examining the supermarket shelf filled with gifts for new-born and the third child the eldest, was at the aisle for children toys. He brought her a football asking if he can get the ball for his friend Barry. His mother said no and he took the ball back to where he got if from. Next he came back with a LEGO and pleaded with his mother to buy him the toy. He rubbed his two hands together facial expression mama please I want Lego, she told him he could not take away the Lego because he had more than enough toys. Nevertheless, the child persisted begging his mother but she did not qualify her mind and since she resist d his requests to leverage the toy, he returned it back to the shelf. spare- period activity this incident the mother spent a considerable amount of condemnation on the aisle as she picked up different gifts, looked at the gifts before settling for a gift bag and money-box. She left the aisle and came back again looking at each gifts. The baby girl started crying and the mother called out her name to stop her crying but the baby persisted. The mother picked up a baby cushion, looked at the cushion, the cost, placed the produce in her trolley and left the aisle for another. Yet, the babys crying persisted.Pester power is a consumer behaviour concept that has become a relevant disoblige in society because of childrens ability to influence their parents skilfully into getting them products has increase greatly (Oaff, 2001 Smithers, 2010). Nowadays, parents seem to be under a lot of pester jam to provide their childrens wants and not needs the pressure is more manifest during Chri stmas and birthdays (Smithers, 2010) and in some facial expressions, parents have to forgo basic necessities in order to meet and fulfil their childrens wish. Some parents are even willing to go into debt due to pester power (Oaff, 2001 and Smithers, 2010). Now, one could argue that parents are at fault by spoiling their children with presents and granting their every wish. Yet, another perspective could be parents truly believe that by providing for their children, the child will not want for anything. This probably again is linked to Maslows hierarchy when parents gain a take of self-fulfilment by satisfying the needs of their children. Smithers (2010), argues that pester power is due to a commercialised society that has transformed festive periods into money-making machine pushed by adverts on childrens television and influenced by friends at schools. In the case of this ethnography study, the mother did prevail against pester power because the mother has developed well-honed a ntennae which detects her sons attempts to influence her (Marshall et al., 2007). Yet, one wondered if the study had taken place in the holiday season, would the mother have relented and purchased the Lego for her son?Mehrotra and Torges (1977) suggest that when shopping for food, parents often yield to their childrens influence and purchase what their children want. The reason for this is the fact that children have been exposed to adverts on television. This as a consequence enables them to impact their parents purchase behaviour (Chandler and Heinzerling, 1998). This might also be due to the fact that some of the children do not eat frequently at home and therefore, the parents are worried and have tried everything except nothing seems to work. So, when shopping with their children, and they are presented with an opportunity to buy food their kids privilege to eat, the parents will not pass it up.With regards to toys, this is rather different and some parents do not yield to p ester power. Nicholls and Cullen (200478) suggest that the parent-perceived childs influence for food is greater than the parent-perceived childs influence for toys revealing that the level of toys consumption is lower than the level of food consumption. As a result, when it comes to toys, the parents can afford to say no and refuse their childrens request. Exception is make during festive periods such as birthdays and Christmas (Smithers, 2010). Although Mehrotra and Torges (1977) argued that when parents refuse their childrens request, what follows is an account statement of why the product was not purchased. This was not seen in the ethnography study. later on instructing her eldest son to return the LEGO, the mother continued her shopping.Our observation would suggest that when people shop individually they tend to spend more on clothing. For Millan and Renolds (20116) suggested that consumers who exhibit cockeyeder independent tendencies may be heavier buyers of value-expres sive goods than those who are more interdependent which is because, self-expression, self-reward, and luxuriant gratification tend to be important motivational factors. various(prenominal) that came alone seemed less discerning, and spent more time evaluating various brands across multiple price categories and more often bought clothes that were expensive. This appeared to be the case because consumer was shopping for personal use.In cases where consumers are accompanied by one or more friends or family members, the presence of friends or family did seem to influence the purchase decision significantly. The buyers in these categories were more discerning, the purchase decision was made faster and the concern was largely in adhering to a particular price band rather than any particular quality of the product. For example, a amiable man wanted to buy an expensive jacket but his married woman objected to the price of the item and so they settled for an item of lower value. It seemed to us that when people shopped in groups they spent more time discussing and less time shopping. This indicates that shopping in this context can be interpreted as a means of pleasure and it might be linked to the id from Freudian personality theory which is focused on the pleasure principle. This gives rise to the careen that clothing can be used to form independent self concept or a preference for self-expression and a means of hedonic consumption. Additionally, in groups consumers appeared more impulsive than planned, as most buyers appeared undecided about what brand or type of cloths to buy. Sometimes family accompanied buyers tried numerous products across multiple ranges, often posh, categories and settled on a cheaper product, the like common labels. This leads one to infer that a lot of the purchases were impulsive.Another example of the pleasure principle in shopping is concerned with children and parents enjoying their children play. There are toy cars in the supermar ket close to the doors and children would get into these toys. Sometimes the children just played on their own while the parents talk either to other family members. In other case, the parents would put money into the toys and have fun with the children. In this regard, the parents seemed expert and laughed quite a lot. This would indicate that the parents were having as much fun as the children.Another example of the pleasure principle effect from the observation is machine-accessible with the notion of self-concept and self-expression. Millan and Reynolds (20114) propose that the stronger ones independent self-concept, the more pronounced will be the consumers preference for self-expression and inner enjoyment through with(predicate) clothing. Going back to the higher up example about shopping for clothes it is evident that this serves as a means of self-expression. Clothing usually serves a potent avenue for affect positive emotions during purchase and subsequent usage. It c an be argued that independent consumers are introverts and lack emotional and relevant support networks such as the extend family and may be lonely. Consequently, expenditure on goods and services which are believably to arouse pleasant stimulus and emotional fulfilment will be alluring to consumers with a strong independent self-concept (Millan and Reynolds 2011). On the other hand, Bagozzi et al (2000) argues that the behaviour of consumers with a strong independent self-concept is basically guided by personal needs, attitudes, and perceived rights rather than social norms and filial obligations. While interdependent tendencies possessed by family accompanied shoppers is compatible with the theory of the interdependent self-concept, according to which modesty and judicious disbursal is an inherent trait of the interdependent self, inherent self-effacing presentations and behaviours in diverse social settings (Heine et al., 2000). Again this can be related to Maslows hierarchy o f needs and in particular the self-esteem or self realisation aspect.This behaviour is influenced by a strong pressure to conform to family and peoples expectation, as well as a fear of being excluded from the group which is consistent with candidates expressed by Lee and Karen (2000) which reports a strong correlation between ones interdependent self concept and group relationship motives for purchasing goods. Which reiterates beliefs that spending so much money on position signifying clothes will be detrimental to groups goals and objectives which may include sustenance and other general welfare necessary in a family setting. satisfying evidence found by Millan and Renolds (2011) suggests that consumers possessing a high independent longing were more inclined to shopping activities via regular visits to clothing shops, keeping up with latest trends and information obtainable in at shops thereby spending more money on clothing than interdependent consumers, the reason for this being that consumers with a strong independent self concept tend to satisfy a wide variety of symbolic and hedonic needs through this means of consumption.In conclusion, we found that at times of recession supermarket need to place emphasis on satisfying consumer needs otherwise they could change suppliers. Therefore it is important to better understand consumers lifestyles, and choice criteria. This would include the pick of suitable media and designing suitable consumer messages. One area of further research could be to what extent consumers remain loyal to specific brands in time of economic recession. We believe that shopping could be more of a pleasure for children if playing facilities were provided. This might encourage parents to spend longer shopping and by implication buy more. One weakness of the observation in our view was the fact that we depended solely on the observation it would have been more reusable to double-check our analysis with the consumers being observed .

Types of Poisonous Snakes and Snake Venom

Types of Poisonous Snakes and Snake VenomIn the fourth century BC, India was invaded by Alexander the Greats army, which was accompanied by a number of Macedonian physicians and observers. They were impressed by the achievements of the local Ayurvedic pr minuteitioners, particularly in the treatment of snake in the grass fleck (1). Unfortunately, the legacy of ancient skills, experience and comprehension puritythorn wee held back makeher than encouraged the application of ripe scientific research methods to parthoodage this continuing scourge of rural liveness-time in India (2).In India, snake en malevolencyation is a huge public health problem, plainly unfortunately it hasnt got its c every(prenominal)able attention. thither is s pott knowledge on epidemiology and stripped research on anti malevolence. just around of the quoted figures on snake burn argon ho scatteral based though near incinerates get in villages and among poor population, who rely biggerrly on traditional treatment. Recent b either-shaped Snake Bite Initiative of the International Society on Toxicology and by the World Health Organisation, is expected to th trend to a greater extent well-situated on epidemiology and treatment of snake pangs (3). Of the 3,000 or so snake species that exist in the world, precisely a or so 15% ar nastinessous. Venomous snakes exist on every continent except Antarctica. In India the monstrous Four (Cobra, Krait, bewitch measure and Russels viper) be the key evil snakes(4).Though the hos fossa catal records show merely 1,300 annual dyings simply a recent Nation each(prenominal) toldy Re prefaceative dimity rate Survey puts this figure to approx. 45,900 shoemakers lasts a grade. Snake collation remains an on a mooer floorestimated defecate of accidental death in modern India. Community education, appropriate develop of medical module and better distribution of anti malevolence, e redundantly in the states with the mellowed prevalence, could reduce snake cock up deaths in India(5).Historical Backg eke out Since snip immemorial snake has been an object of adoration in more(prenominal) work outries. According to Hindu mythology this world is resting on a m some(prenominal)-headed cobra. Lord Vishnu lies on Sheshnag. The Cobra coils a or so Lord Shiva. Old Egyptian splendour be pictured with cobra hood on their forehead. Some cultures held snakes in high esteem as powerful religious symbols. Quetzalcoati, the mythical plumed ophidian was worshipped as the master of life by ancient Aztecs of fundamental America. Some African cultures worshipped rock pythons and considered the killing of one to be a serious crime. In Australia, the Aborigines associated a giant rainbow serpent with the institution of life. In Jewish texts, in the old Maya civilization, in Kundalini yoga, theosophy and in m whole medieval society emblems the world over, snakes form an essential symbol. This shows how intimate has been the historical, loving and mythological association of snakes with the musical compositionkind and no wonder the cobra is worshipped in India on Naga Panchami day. Ayurvedic texts written by Vagbhata and Sushruta, bear given in de restful detail the classification of snakes according to their symptoms and their poisoning. There argon many stories about constrictors, particularly anacondas in the Amazon and pythons in the east, which are said to hold strangled adult humans, these need to be treated with great deliberate of skepticism (6,7,10).In confide it is simply the poisonous snakes that are of interest. drunkenness from snake burn off is an meaning(a) medical emergency in Africa, south America, India, Pakistan and greater part of south East Asia.EpidemiologyAs snake bite is not a notifiable illness, there is little reliable information on incidence of snakebite in many parts of the world. Snake bite is an important occupational injury affecting far mers, plantation workers, herders, and fishermen. Open-style habitation and the practice of sleeping on the floor overly expose people to bites from nocturnal snakes. Bites are more frequent in young men, and cosmopolitanly occur on lower limbs. The incidence of snake bites is higher during the rainy harden and during periods of cold agricultural activity (6). Available data shows 30,000-40,000 deaths from snakebites every year but this figure plausibly is an underestimate (8), be coiffure of incomplete reporting. Recent global estimates suggest 2.5 million bites and 85000 annual deaths. In India recent published literature suggests y archean 45,900 deaths due to poisonous snakebites and 5.6-12.6 deaths per 100,000 population in some states appears to be realistic(4,5). Upto 80% of snake bite patients in developing countries, first allude traditional practitioners, before visiting a medical center (6,7,9). owe to the delay in reaching hospital many patients die enroute. spi ll by the circumstance that around 85-90 % snakes are non-poisonous and in time 50% of bites by poisonous snakes are dry runs, number of snakebites in India are enormous(4). Myanmar probably has highest mortality figure in Asia, where over 70% bites are by Russells viper. In India, Maharashtra records the highest number of snakebites, followed by West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. In Maharashtra alone, 70 bites per 100,000 population occur yearly with 2.4 per 100,000 mortality. Rajasthan and Jammu region of JK also report astronomical number of viper bites (up to 95% of all bites (10). During rains and floods number of cases shows a steep rise. approximately bites occur between 0400 hours to midnight and mere observation that majority of bites are on lower extremity suggest that snake is inadvertently trodden upon.In India 2/3rd of bites are due to aphorism leprose viper, about 1/4th due to Russells and a bittieer proportion due to cobra and Krait. In neighbori ng Sri Lanka Daboiarussellii accounts for 40% and in Myanmar 70% of snake bites (11,12).For correct epidemiologic studies one requires enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify antigen and anti ashes. This permits reliable acknowledgment and sensitive quantification of venom antigens and antibody. Natural antibody is detectable in serum by one hebdomad of bite, which rises to peak by one year and falls to low levels by 3 years, though whitethorn be detectable for up to 40 years after bite. Anti snake venom reduces but doesnt suppress the generation of antibodies. In some countries e.g. Australia, ELISA is routinely used for identification of poison (13).Anatomy and HabitsSnakes be commodious to order Ophidia of the Reptilia general class. Over 3000 species are encountered in the world of which less(prenominal) than 15% are poisonous. nigh of these are effect in tropical and subtropical regions, Australia and throughout USA except in Alaska, Maine and Hawaii. In India 216 spe cies from 9 families are report of which 52 species from 3 families are poisonous. Most snakes are non-venomous, have no fangs and belong to colubrid family a a couple of(prenominal) colubrids are technically poisonous having a venom gland connected to a solid fang at the back of mouth. Bites from back fanged colubrids are generally harmless to man but with some species care African boomslang, Dispholidustypus, serious and even fatal poisoning has been account in the snake handlers(13). The three families of front fanged poisonous snakes are elapids, vipers and sea snakes. Elapids are land snakes with non-mobile 3-5 mm long fangs in adults. Vipers have 10-30 mm long fangs which are easy to see when erected, but difficult to see when folded against upper gum. Vipers are divided into crotalids or pit vipers who have heat sensing pit between pith and nose and viperidae which dont have the pit. Sea snakes have very all of a sudden immobile fangs and flat rudder like tails. There a re mainly 4 poisonous snakes encountered in India i.e. Cobra, Krait, Saw scaled and Russells viper. New addition to Big Four is Hump-nosed Pit viper (Hypnale hypnale), recently being reported from India though living for more than 100 years(16). This has been mistaken for Saw Scaled Viper by intimately. It is place by larger, triangular head ending in a owl with large scales on the head in contrast to the small scales of apothegm scaled viper. The envenomation is manifested by coagulopathy and nephritic also-ran. It is reported as one of the most poisonous snakes in India but specific anti venom against this is not available (12). general poisonous snakes open up in India are as belowViperidae * Saw scaled viper (Echis carinatus)* Russells viper (Vipera russelli)family Elapidae * Indian Cobra (Naja naja)* Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus)Crotalidae * Pit ViperHydrophidae * Sea snakesCobra is 1.2-2.1 meters long turn big businessman Cobra may be as long as 5.5 meters. Cobra is unremarkably just the ticket gray to brown. The back of hood may or may not have a pattern. They raise their hood when aroused or threatened. They judge to avoid mankind unless they are too close or are trodden upon. The surmount a cobra can strike in forward focussing is the height its hood rises above the ground. Some cobras however can spit venom upto a distance of 3 meters. This can cause redness, corneal abrasions/ulcers etc. King cobra is uniformly olive, brown or green with circular cross bands of black. Although it is the largest venomous snake in the world but it avoids fight an opposite venomous snake for fear of being bitten, therefore it feeds only on harmless species. Females build a nest and so sterilize the eggs. Lying close by, she guards the nest and is highly aggressive towards anything which approaches the nest.The king cobra is imbed in the forests or their vicinity in the Himalayas, Bengal, Assam and South India. The everyday Indian cobra is found in jungles but also in straight-from-the-shoulder acres with or without vegetation in gardens, drains, cultivated field, and popu latelyd areas in mans proximity in stacks of wood and under rubbish, in loose masonry, crevices of walls and twist ruins in old cemeteries, in temples or mosques.It is often seen in inglorious corners of bathrooms, stables and servant quarters of old bungalows. It may be found in old hole of a tree, in ant-hill or a rat burrow. It can climb trees and swim well. It feeds on rats, mice, frog less a great deal on birds or their eggs and some quantify on chickens, squirrels, lizards and other snakes. It is usually diurnal in habit but in populated areas it is more nocturnal(14,15).Krait is black or bluish black with white narrow crossbands and a narrow head. Its average length is 90cm 150 cm. It is found only in Asia. It is active during night and passive during the day. It is found in plains, cultivated fields and human habitations. It has tendency t o seek shelter in sleeping bags, boots and tents.Kraits are mostly found in Eastern India, Assam, Bengal and parts of South India and patches all over the country. There are two varieties, band and non-banded. Although it has most sozzled venom of all land snakes, it is rather shy and bites human beings least universally (13,15).Vipers are so called because they are viviparous. There are one hundred ten kinds of vipers and all are poisonous. Vipers have broad plates run awaying right crossways the paunch and small scales on the head similar to those on the body. Body is light brown and their back is usually covered with black blotches of inverted V shaped markings. Some of the pit vipers have large shield on the head. Russells viper or Daboia is a big stumpy snake -2 meters long with little tail and characteristic marking as describe above. It is irritable. When threatened it coils tightly, hisses and strikes with a lightning speed, that victim has no chance of escaping. India n pit vipers are generally found in hilly areas of western Ghats and Sunderbans in West Bengal.Russells viper prefers open country, cultivated fields and bushy or grassy fallow lands. It is nocturnal in habit. It is commonly found in plains of Punjab, Bombay, Madras area and Brahamputravalley(4,6,20).Saw scaled viper (Echiscarinatus) is found all over India but particularly in Western India, Punjab, and around Tiruchirapalli. It prefers open dry rocky country or dried-out deserts.Saw Scaled Viper (Phoorsa) is responsible for maximum bites and deaths all over the world than any other snake. This small stumpy snake measures 25-60cmand camouflages well with the contacts. Colour is light buff with shades of brown, dull red or gray. Its sides have a white or light coloured pattern. Its head usually has shadow stripes that start behind the warmness and extend to the rear. It gets its name from the fact it rubs its own body from sides and suffers rasping sound. This ill- tempered sna ke attacks any intruder. It is common in rural settlements, cultivated fields and regions, barns, and rock walls(4,14).Sea snakes fit cobra and its allies in structure of their fangs and most other characters. Most of them are 3-4 ft. long, and a few may attain a length of 8 feet. Their tails are laterally flattened and are sculled in play around -like fashion during swimming. Most sea snakes are covered with small round scales and lack the enlarged ventral scales found in terrestrial species. The nostrils are valvularand hey can be closed when snake submerges- and may be displaced towards the shed light on of the head. Excess salt from the sea water and diet is excreted through special glands in the snakes mouth. Venomous sea snakes mostly inhabit the waters of Australia, Indonesia, southeast Asia and India. Of the more than 50 species some are many times more poisonous than land snakes, with venom 10-40 times more potent than that of cobra. draw off for a single species found in creeks and river estuaries sea snakes are all poisonous. They however have a narrow gape and rarely bite effectively.Their bite is relatively painless and, amazingly very low ploughshare of patients suffer significant envenomation during the attack. In a census in Malay Peninsula less than 25% developed features of poisoning and a small destiny became critically ill (4,12,14).Snakes have a good sensory scholarship with primitive ears. Their vision is limited to few meters only, with better acuity for move objects. Lower jaw is a pair of bones joined in concert centrally by an elastic ligament which doesnt articulate with maxilla thus enabling the snake to swallow its prey as a whole. Fangs are limited teeth on pre maxilla. Venom is secreted from parotid glands and is meant to immoblise the small creatures like rat. art object is an innocent coincident victim. Bite is a well coordinated act involving movement of head and body. It involves coordinated positioning of head, op ening of mouth, attack by forward thrust of body and head, piercing the skin by fangs and injecting the venom while the wound is deepened by contr doing of temporalis bodybuilder. Vipers have holes at the tip of fangs while elapids have gutters in the fangs(14,15).Identification of Poisonous SnakesMost of the bites are by non-poisonous snakes, but the intense fear of snake bites may cause acute panic reaction or feeling of imminent death. If the patient has brought snake to the attending doctor, proper identification can inspection and repair institute early and appropriate treatment to the victim and also comfort undue emotional disturbance. Some of the important contrastingiating features of poisonous from non-poisonous snake are appended below(13,18).(a) Fangs The most distinctive feature of poisonous snakes is the fangs. These are modified teeth in the upper jaw, generally two in number, one on either side. They communicate with salivary glands and are hollow or grooved. In elapidae and sea snakes they are located in front, are trivial and immobile while they are large, curved and have wide barf of movement in vipers.(b) Scales on Belly In poisonous snakes the intumesce scales are large and extend all across the stomach. In non-poisonous snakes paunch scales are small and generally dont extend across the belly.(c) Head Vipers have heavier triangular head with small scales all over. In case of pit vipers a pit is located between the nostril and the eye. Cobra and Krait have large head scales. In cobra upper third labial is largest and touches the eye and nasal bone shield. In Kraits upper third labial does not touch the eye and nose, but the fourth lower labial scale on the under rebel of mouth is the largest. All the poisonous sea snakes have large scales on the head and valved nostrils.(d) Pupil Poisonous snake have generally elliptical or vertical slit. However pupils are round in elapidae (cobra) and most non-poisonous snakes.(e) Body design Krait has central row of large scales on dorsal side, which are almost hexagonal. It has paired white or black stripes across the body in the banded Krait. Some cobras have spectacle-like mark on their hood.(f) Fang mark In non-poisonous snakes since all teeth are at same level so bite is stretched and bite marks are along a curved cable system i.e. row of bites,as in human bite. Bite site can be easily make out. In poisonous snakes since poisonous teeth are generally two (fang marks) and other teeth areat lower level, so only two,1-2 cm spaced puncture marks are seen. A distance of less than 10 mm signifies a small snake while a distance of over 15 mm is suggestive of a large snake. Sometimes one requires hand lens to identify these marks peculiarly in cases of cobra or Krait bite. It is noteworthy that the size of the venom fangs has no relation to the virulence of the venom. The comparatively innocent Indo-MalayLachesishave enormous fangs, whilst the smallest fangs arefound in theHydrophidswhich possess very potent venom.(g) Sound Most venomous snakes produce characteristic sounds, which may also help in recognition of snake. Russells viper produces Hissing, saw scaled viper Rasping and King Cobra Growling sounds.Easy identification of different snakes is as followsCobra Hood while alive, large scales on head. Pupil is round and 3rd upper labial touches the eye and nostril. heavy(p) belly scales extend acrossthe width.Krait The fourth lower labial scale on the under surface of the mouth isthe largest. Hexagonal large scales in the central row on dorsal side. Body may be banded. Belly scales extend across the width.Viper Triangular heavy head with small scales all over. Large belly scales extend across the width.Snake VenomSnake venoms are the most complex of all natural venoms and poisons. The venom of any species might tone down more than 100 different toxic and non-toxic proteins and peptides, and also non-protein toxins, carbohydrates, lipids, ami nes, and other small molecules. The toxins of most importance in human envenoming include those that affect the nervous, cardiovascular, and haemostatic systems, and cause waver necrosis (21).Snake venom is primarily meant to paralyse the prey, man is only accidental victim to whom snake strikes if threatened. Proteins constitute 90-95% of venoms dry weight and they are responsible for almost all of its biological set up. Venom is made up of toxins, nontoxic proteins (which also have pharmacological properties), and many enzymes especially hydrolytic ones.Enzymes (molecular weight13-150 KDa) make-up 80-90% of viperid and 25-70% of elapid venoms digestive hydrolases, L-amino irate oxidase, phospholipases, thrombin-likepro-coagulant,andkallikrein-like serine proteasesandmetalloproteinases(hemorrhagins), which damage vascular endothelium. Polypeptidetoxins (mol weight 5-10 KDa) includecytotoxins,cardiotoxins, and postsynaptic neurotoxins (suchas-bungarotoxinand-Cobratoxin). Compou nds with low molecular weight (up to 1.5 KDa) include metals, peptides, lipids, nucleosides, carbohydrates, amines, and oligopeptides, which crucify angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and potentiate bradykinin (BPP).Phosphodiesterasesinterfere with the preys cardiac system, mainly to lower the source pressure.Phospholipase A2causes haemolysisby lysing thephospholipidcell membranesofred blood cells.Amino acidoxidasesandproteasesare used for digestion. Amino acid oxidase also triggers some other enzymes and is responsible for the yellow colour of the venom of some species.Hyaluronidaseincreases wander permeability to accelerate absorption of other enzymes into tissues. Some snake venoms slaver fasciculins, like themambas(Dendroaspis), which inhibitcholinesteraseto make the prey lose muscle keep (22,23).The most lethal venoms are those of elapids and sea snakes. These toxins are rapidly enwrapped into the blood stream thereby create rapid systemic effects. Large molecular weight viper toxins are absorbed slowly through lymphatics thereby staying longer at local site, hence more local effects. Pathophysiology of ophitoxemia is essentially playent on disruption of normal cellular functions. Some enzymes like hyaluronidase disseminate venom by breaking down tissue barriers. Ophitoxemia can acquire to increase in vascular permeability thereby causing loss of blood and plasma volume in extravascular space. assembly of this fluid is responsible for edema and fluid loss, if significant it can lead to shock. Venom also has cytolytic effect leading to necrosis and subsidiary infection. Neurotoxic effect may lead to paralysis, cardiotoxic effect can cause cardiac arrest and likewise myotoxic or nephrotoxic effect can lead to rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. Ophitoxaemia also can lead to clotting disturbances.Among the miscellaneous species, the lethal dose of venom, for cobra is 120 mg, Krait 60 mg and for Russells viper and saw scaled viper is 150 mg resp ectively. But clinical features and outcomes are not sure as every bite does not cause complete envenomation. pathologic effects of venom may not be noticed until about six hours (varying between 1.5-72 hours), and it may remain functionally active causing persistent coagulopathy even after three weeks of bite. whence duration of antigenemia is an important determinant for the extent of pathological effect. It has been unequivocally proved by analyze the venom levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), that effects due to envenomation depend on venom hours (i.e. Blood venom level x time elapsed between bite and institution of treatment) rather than blood levels alone. therefrom with the same level of venom, features due to envenomation may become progressively exacting with passage of time (14,20).There are four distinct types of venom effectsProteolyticvenomdismantles the molecular structure of the area surrounding and including the bite.Hemotoxicvenomsact on the hea rt and cardiovascular system.Neurotoxicvenomacts on the nervous system and brain.Cytotoxicvenomhas a localized action at the site of the bite.Pathophysiology of various biological effects of snake envenomationThe avocation few paragraphs shall describe the biological effects of venom.(a) local anaesthetic Swelling Most viper bites cause local swelling at the site of bite, which starts within proceedings of bite and massive swelling of the limb may develop within 48-72 hours. This is usually the result of hemorragins in the venom. This opens the endothelial pores resulting in leakage of plasma or whole blood. At times leakage may be so much that patient develops hypovolemic shock. This swelling is not due to any venous occlusion or infection. If the exudation is of whole blood, then later discoloration of the limb may develop. In contrast to Echis, in European adder V berus bites, spontaneous bleeding is rare but discolouration is common. Sometimes local swelling is delayed and c ompartment syndrome may result(10,13,17).(b) Local Necrosis In viper bites local necrosis appears late if at all and if it occurs, it is due to ischemia, mimicking dry gangrene. On the other hand in Cobra bite local necrosis appears early. Local swelling may develop after 2-3 hours but necrosis develops rapidly after that. It is due to cytolytic factors present in the venom and is a wet gangrene. As this dead tissue provides ideal setting for anaerobes, hence the putrid smell. An early excision is warranted (13).(c) Non-specific early symptoms With bites of some vipers e.g. V berus, V xanthina, Australian elapids, some rattle snakes etca few symptoms are common. Vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, explosive diarrhea and collapse can occur. These features reason out in 30-60 minutes, suggesting activation of kinin system followed by inhibition of bradykinin (13,17).(d) electrical shock It can develop due to extensive volume leak from vessels in cases of viper bite. It can result ev en before a limb gets swollen. pulmonic intra vascular clotting, pulmonary edema and cardiac effects can be contributory factors for shock.(e) Spontaneous haemorrhage Haemorrhages can develop in patients with viper bites even age after the bite. These at times may be life threatening especially if they occur in brain. Local blisters at bite site appear to be depot of venom, which dont get targeted by anti snake venom. Therefore one must keep in thinker the delayed absorption from bite site in patients who present with late bleeding manifestations despite having been given anti-snake venom a few days back.(f) Effect on Circulation Some viper venoms contain procoagulant activity which activates prothrombin to thrombin which in turn converts fibrinogen to fibrin while in others procoagulant venom may at a time affect fibrinogen. This fibrin formed is susceptible to lysis unlike natural fibrin thus resulting in poorly clottable or non-clottable blood because of absent or very low le vels of fibrinogen. It should be remembered that bleeding manifestations during envenomation are not generally due to coagulation disturbances but rather due to haemorrhagin. Platelet count may also be low though usually it is normal. Low platelet count is due to consumption of platelets in the repair of endothelial damage. Polymorphonuclearleucocytosis is common in all forms of envenomation especially dreaded envenomation. Both viper and elapidae bite may have hemolytic activity in vitro but abnormal hematolysis is rarely of clinical importance except probably in renal failure (13,17).(g) Renal Failure Renal failure is a common manifestation of viperine envenomation especially where treatment has been delayed. On renal biopsy acute tubular necrosis is the commonest underlying lesion in 50-70% of cases and acute cortical necrosis (patchy / diffuse) has been found in 20-25% of cases. Hypovolemia and shock are the usual underlying mechanism. early(a) contributory factors are hemo/ myoglobinuria, hemolysis, associated sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (24). Glomerular lesions have also been described in snake bite cases. Merchant et al(25) have reported mesangial proliferation, rending of basement membrane, swelling of endothelial cells and ballooning of glomerular capillaries, but the conditional relation of these lesions in causing renal failure is not clear and is debatable. Seedat et al(26) reported two cases due to puff adder who developed oliguric renal failure and biopsy showed crescenticglomerulunephritis. Authors suspected hypersensitivity of venom as the cause. Occasional casesof severe glomerulonephritis related renal failure have been reported in the literature. Experimental studies carried out on the effect of Habu snake venom (found in Japan) has given some sixth sense into understanding of the glomerular lesion. This venom contains hemorrhagin, like the venom of Echiscarinatus. Within 24 hours of injection of this venom destru ction of mesangium occurs resulting in ballooning of capillaries which become jammed with red cells and fibrin giving an carriage of blood cysts. This is followed by proliferation of mesangial cells giving appearance of segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis. Rarely crescents are observed. These studies provide evidence that these glomerular changes are due to vasculotoxic effects of hemorrhagin. However about tubular necrosis or cortical necrosis, the commonest lesion encountered in snake envenomation, there is no consensus that venom has any direct toxic effect in producing these lesions (27,28).(h) Neurotoxic effects Elapidae venom and sea snake venom cause neurotoxic effects due to neuromuscular check. Commonly affected muscles in elapidae bite are those of eye, tongue, throat and chest (leading to respiratory paralysis in severe envenomation). Neurotoxins are small molecular weight positively charged molecules with less antigenecity. Neuro- muscular blockade is produced by one of the following mechanisms. (a) Post synaptic block (Cobra) cobratoxin and alpha-bungarotoxins act similar to d-tubocurarine on the post synaptic membrane. There is no decrease in ethanoyl group choline. Response to neostigmine is satisfactory. (b) Pre-synaptic blockade (Krait)beta- bungarotoxin acts like botulism toxin pre synaptically to block the neuro-muscular junction. Post junctional membrane remains sensitive to acetyl choline. The time required for neuromuscular block varies with impulse traffic, therefore intense physical activity shortens the interval between envenomation and neuromuscular block. Response to neostigmine is less satisfactory. It is important to note that these neurotoxins dont cross the blood brain barrier and therefore do not cause alteration in consciousness. Hence in case of altered sensorium an alternative cause should be found (23,29).(i) Cardiotoxic Effects Cardiotoxin (Cobra) acts on cell membrane of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle to pr oduce paralysis and cardiac asystole. Cobramine B and cytoxin cause irreversible depolarization of cell membrane and systolic cardiac arrest. Hyperkalemia following massive hemolysis or rhabdomyolysis also depresses cardiac function.(j) Myotoxic Effects Although sea snake venom appears to be neurotoxic in animal experiments, the effects in man are primarily myotoxic. There is diffuse effect on all muscles though local effects at the site of bite are minimal. In humans bitten by sea snakes the findings are typical of conclude myopathic lesions in skeletal muscle. Damage to muscles- rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemia resulting from it may be life threatening. Snake envenomation has so diverse effects that every system of the body is affected directly or indirectly (20,29).CONCLUSIONSince ancient times snakes have been worshiped, feared or loathed in India. It is a common and frequently withering environmental and occupational disease, especially in rural areas of our country. India has the highest number of death to snake bite in the world. One of the major gaps in the difference against snakebite in India is the lack of qualitative work. Most Herpetology text books give snake identification data that is overtly complex and of little use to doctors. Snakes are misidentified by doctors in most cases where snake is brought to the hospital. Without the snake, identification based on symptomatology is clearly fraught with problems. The doctors should be aware of discovery of a fresh poisonous snake, the Hump-nosed Pitviper (Hypnale Hypnale) which has no available antivenom at present. Community education, appropriate training of medical staff and better distribution of anti venom, especially in the states with the high prevalence, could reduce snakebite deaths in India.