Thursday, January 31, 2019

Advertising Essays -- essays research papers

ADVERTISING RIGHT OR WRONG     The giganticst m iy-making industry in the unite States today is publicizing. During events such as the Super Bowl, companies pay large sums of coin in return for thirty seconds of air time. Advertising is the diddle of promoting a product by informing the public of the products worth. Whether it be television, radio, or news text file, companies moldiness find a distinct name and phrase that one disregard associate with their product nonetheless, people often buzz off rudeness to these label and phrases. People claim that often times these product names advance racial stereotypes and racial disunity. While some people whitethorn take offense to the name of the product as tumefy as the counsel companies go about selling their product, the First Amendment undermines these offenses by eitherowing all Americans to discombobulate the right to freedom of expression. Companies do not, however, have the right to engage wha tsoever name or phrase for their product. Various government agencies strike off exact limits on what can and what cannot be done by the publicizing industries. By realizing that advertising is the practice of ones First Amendment right, as well as knowing the rules for advertising, one can conclude that advertising does not promote racial disunity or racism.     The purpose of the First Amendment is to lead Americans the freedom to express how they feel therefore, advertising is exactly a practice of this right. If groups do not lik... Advertising Essays -- essays research papers ADVERTISING RIGHT OR WRONG     The largest money-making industry in the United States today is advertising. During events such as the Super Bowl, companies pay large sums of money in return for thirty seconds of air time. Advertising is the act of promoting a product by informing the public of the products worth. Whether it be television, radio, or newspapers, companies must find a distinct name and phrase that one can associate with their product nonetheless, people often take offense to these names and phrases. People claim that often times these product names promote racial stereotypes and racial disunity. While some people may take offense to the name of the product as well as the way companies go about selling their product, the First Amendment undermines these offenses by allowing all Americans to have the right to freedom of expression. Companies do not, however, have the right to choose any name or phrase for their product. Various government agencies set strict limits on what can and what cannot be done by the advertising industries. By realizing that advertising is the practice of ones First Amendment right, as well as knowing the rules for advertising, one can conclude that advertising does not promote racial disunity or racism.     The purpose of the First Amendment is to allow Americans the freedom to express how they feel therefore, advertising is simply a practice of this right. If groups do not lik...

Classification of Restaurant Customers :: Classification Essay

Classification of Restaurant CustomersIve been here(predicate) for ex minutes and my server hasnt taken my order yet This is a direct quote from me before I worked at a tranquilityaurant. I never looked to see how many tables my server actually had or how such(prenominal) running I made them do. The sad truth is most citizenry do not notice these details either, which may affect the hint their server will receive. By looking at the attitude and nutriment of restaurant customers, you clear classify them into three categories according to their tipping patterns the hmmhow full(a) were they? tippers, the stick-to-the-fifteen-percent tippers, and the I-am-or-once-was-a-server tippers.The hmmhow good were they? tippers stick out as a sore thumb would. They deplete the attitude of They atomic number 18 working for me, and The whole world revolves a spoke me. They in any case say things such as, Is my food suppose to look like that? and Where is my fill? They atomic number 18 the customers who always pay a disgusted see and are not satisfied with anything. The hmmhow good were they? Tippers are not only high school maintenance but also the worst tippers. When the bill comes, they feel they can justify giving a small tip because of their lack of improvement. Many can guess the server likes these customers least. These customers not only ascribe the server in an angry mood but also the rest of the employees that must hear from that server. The average customers in a restaurant number under the Stick-to-the-fifteen-percent, tippers. They have the attitude of Im just here for the food. These average customers can be heard saying, Looks good, I just take away ketchup. and When you get a chance, may I please have a refill? The Stick-to-the-fifteen- percent tippers have a more serious, laid-back face and stay quiet. These customers are average maintenance and average tippers. The only measure they leave more than a fifteen- percent tip is when they need to round to the nearest dollar. Their server is mellow and polite because he is thankful for the anticipate tip. A server walks away from the table cool, calm and collected with no need to complain.The best customers of all three categories are the I-am-or-once-was-a-server tippers. These wonderful customers have the attitude of I know how hard they are working. and Wow, our server is busy. They are the customers who dont say anything at all except for their order.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Recruiting and Team Building for Angel Springs Care Essay -- Human Res

Recruiting and group building for Angel springs care recruitment and selection is a wait on that takes place at every cream off of an organization and is among matters of utmost importance in human re witnesser management. It refers to the process of drawing, ascertaining their competencies, and choosing the individual who fits the job. The process is often the first move towards instituting the competitive part and the essential precedence for the organisations and considering the current global situation, every recruit should thence be most fitting to enable build an effective group (Nankervis, Compton & Morrissey, 2009, p. 15). Some employers dwell only on qualifications and past experience of the applicants so much that additional initiation and guidance is deemed irrelevant. How the job is to be handled is miss while professionalism is overemphasized. However, in health and social care organizations just bid in many other organizations, recruitment goes beyond acquainti ng the new employee to co-workers, egg laying down the basic operations and practices of the place of work (Belbin, 2000, p. 5).Recruitment constitutes an organize operation ranging from rooting the prospective suitors to organizing and carrying out the interviews. The process also demands a lot of time alongside a variety of resources. Fundamentally, a recruitment process involves job evaluation, sourcing, screening and selection and orientation. Job analysis involves documenting the animated or expected job requirements (Nankervis, Compton & Morrissey, 2009, p.27). This is encompassed in a job exposition and gives the limits and aims of the quest. This majorly comprises a combination of duties carried out previously and theres demand to update them before to en... ...the productivity of the old and new employees under whizz environment. Since individuals dont often achieve much in isolation, team work becomes of utmost importance to operate that the diverging talent of empl oyees is unified and harmonised towards a good and common cause. Team building strategies ensure that this is possible as strong teams give a fundamental, reliable source of lasting competitive edge for healthcare organizations. Works CitedBelbin, R. M. (2000). Beyond the team. Oxford Butterworth-Heinemann. Hough, M. (2002). throng work skills and theory. London Hodder Arnold.Nankervis, A., Compton, R. & Morrissey, B. (2009). Effective Recruitment and Selection Practices, 5th ed. Albany, NSW CCH Australia Limited.Pedler M, Burgoyne J and Boydell T. 2007. A Managers guide to self-development. Manhattan, NY McGraw Hill- Education.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Generation Gap Essay

How m whatsoever times have you felt that your pargonnts wear fortht understand you, that they have no respect for you as an individual(a)? How very much do you shake your head in frustration and plunk it on the contemporaries scatter? P arnts They ar like aliens from a nonher planet altogether You and they are in different camps strangers forced to live under the same roof Right? Wrong There is a office of bridging what appears to be a yawning chasm. If you genuinely want to improve your consanguinity with your parents (and give them a big shock in the bargain ) estimate listening to them, treating them just like you would listen to a valued friend. instead of always whining, You dont understand me, stop and think. Do we eer try and understand them? Parents are under a lot of render, too. When we are worrying close our upcoming Math exam, they are worrying just ab emerge the boss in the office, and just how they are going to pay for our braces. comparable us, they have days when someone humiliates them at work. Sometimes, they dont cut where the money for all the applications you send to foreign universities is going to come from. Your florists chrysanthemum may seldom have a chance to go out and enjoy herself. Your dads colleagues may deride him because he quite a littlenot chip in membership to a club.Yes, weird though it may sound, parents are merciful too. They may have dreams theyve sacrificed because they want you to realize yours. Once you step into their shoe and try to look at things from their argue of view, dickens wonderful things materialize one, you see a new respect for them, and two, you will find that you dissolve actually get your own way without heated arguments. Today, when you come bum from school or college, ask your mom or dad, How did your day go at present? or Tell me a little more about your job. or Is there anything I tidy sum do to help you nearly in the house? Youll see the visible variation it imprints to the atmosphere at home.And each day, try to keep your promises to do your homework, to clean your room and to carry through letters or telephone if you are living away from home. lxx five per cent of the one-year- over-the-hillsters claimed that the teenage years were a time of stress and anxiety for them anxiety about exams, jobs, parental expectations, peer pressure, love lives, the wishing to look good and dress smartly, and well, even the state of the nation. Generation gap means difference in attitude, or lack of understanding among younger and fourth-year generation.This generation gap has always been there yet these days it has reached to an explosive stage. The values and patterns of life have changed to a great extent. Today, everybody likes to live and behave in his own way. This attitude has widened the generation gap, which scum bag never be filled. It is now destroying family life completely. The elders look after the children and make all sorts of sacrifices to bring them up. Naturally, they feel they have a right all over them. They want their children to follow their instructions as they have certain expectations from them. and the children, when they find up, want a complete freedom in their thoughts and actions and unfortunately their thoughts and actions are just opposite to those expected by the elders. They revolt when any kind of restrictions are imposed on them. Consequently, the family breaks up and everything gets ruined. In India, we are yet in the initial stages, but the gap has appeared and it is going to grow bigger day by day. So it is not only the province of the younger but also of the elders to fill this gap with their love, affection and trust.The task, in accompaniment, has grown and intensified due to the rise in complexities of life. These complexities have arisen in the wake of modern fontism where everything allied to tradition, custom and the population was to be move upside down. The pro blem arises mainly when parents forget how did they behave, what problems did they encounter and what feeling did they feel when they were children, especially teenagers. When the children enter the stormy teens the problem of generation gap comes out with greater intensity then ever. Children too fail to see their parents point of view and blindly stick to breaking rules.For them, at this age, their friends suddenly find important dislodging the parents from the vantage point. This causes great anxiety to parents and the friction increases mingled with the children and the parents. At this time, grandparents can play a constructive role in ready to bridge the gap of thought, attitude, and way of life and approaches to it. Generation gap is not that serious a problem if families can learn to sit over dinner and give tongue to or sit in the living suite over a cup of hot comforting coffee and talk the things out, ironing the difference and sharing the experiences.When this commu nication barrier is transcended and the ice broken, the problem does not remain that serious anymore. Talking it out calmly and coolly, with the mood of sorting things out, changing for each other and changing for better can be the most helpful instrument in bridging the generation gap. Family outings, vacations, tours, to picnic-outings, often with the family etc can be effective ways to initiate intimacy between parents and children. Watching movie and discussing them, putting forth the different viewpoints can be a beginning to inculcate the habit of a healthy confabulation between members of the family.Such small things and steps can do wonders in initiating a healthy family atmosphere and reducing friction between two generations that are right in their own respects. Their only fault is that they are viewing the same object from opposite directions. Age, time and experience or the lack of it, forces them to do so. Generation Gap Summary It is a fact of life that the generatio n gap or clash is something that has existed and will inhabit to exist as long as man exists on this earth. It is not restricted to certain parts of the world, to certain times of human write up or to certain cultures.That is why this clash is a fact of a life accepted by all generations, all over the world and through all time. Generation gap is a more modern term for the difference between generations, or milder than the extreme definition which calls this difference as the clash between the opinions, the attitudes and the behaviors of the younger and the older generations. The inevitable make out of time and technologies makes the introduction of new ideas, new believes, and new values unavoidable.As a result this difference in the general outlook at life arises which is manifest in the difference of opinions and friendly values, in extension to the difference mannerism and behavior between young pot and older people within the family as well as within the favorable contex ts. Perhaps, the gap generation that exists now between the younger and older generation can best be indicated by the difference of ideas between the young people and the older people in the family, namely the grand parents and the aunts or uncles who might be much older than their nieces and nephews, as is the case in such societies.Where bigamy is legal. The technological advances play a great rule in enlarging the gap as the younger generations are quicker to accept and buy out these technologies so that they trust the conservative and technologically suspicious elders of their families very old fashioned in their, tastes, opinions and out looks toward life. On the other hand, the older people despise the modern values which they call the internet and globalization values.They consider the young generation shallow, lacking knowledge and moral depth. This difference can best be seen in the difference of interests and hobbies. The young people of today get their knowledge from th e internet, and they hardly read other than get away magazines, while the elders of their hard-earned, profound book based knowledge. The difference includes the moral and social values, as the different generations see notions such as marriage, love, happiness, decency, and decorum from different perspectives.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Four Seasons Hotel Case Study Essay

A companys outline can be identified by figuring out what disdain approaches and actions the company undertakes. Thompson et al. (2009) outline the unwrap elements to timber for in the process of understanding a companys schema. quad Seasons differentiation based focused strategy is evident from the organisations strategic actions. Sharps stopping point to build on high-end high life and modern amenities so as to outdo the old proud hotels (p.3, para.3) is an example of efforts to pursue newfangled opportunities or defend against threats as rise up as actions to outcompete touch ons, which provides basis for differentiation.By focusing on medium-sized hotels of stupendous woodland with exceptional supporter levels (p.3, para.3), 4 Seasons defines the blood scale and differentiates itself from competitors through providing top-hole flavor and service. This is one of the moves to build a competitive advantage thus outcompeting rivals. The action to go public to rais e funds (p.3, para.4) is a chemical reaction to changing external circumstances, which supports the business growth and paves the way for quadruple Seasons to be the market leader. In auberge to parcel out diverse needs of the guests, quartet Seasons extends into the fields of luxury resorts (p.4, para.1) and residential properties (p.4, para.4).With such action to diversify, it en fittings quartette Seasons to serve well a market niche. An example of actions to merge or acquire rival companies is the ownership acquisition of Regent (p.4, para.2), and a strategic alliance is make via selling stake to Prince Alwaleed (p.4, para.4). By doing so, 4 Seasons improves its competitive position as the market leader. The shift of focus from ownership to counseling service (p.4, para.3) reflects four Seasons efforts to pursue new opportunities or defend against threats and its responses to changing external conditions. The business model of four Seasons is defined by this strategi c shift.The regional focusing structure (p.5, para.4), the finalisation process of budget plan (p.6, para.2), the human vision management (p.8, para.3), and the recruitment policy (p.8, para.5) are examples of how functional activities are managed in quad Seasons. By optimising functional activities, it en up to(p)s improved quality and node service provided. Four Seasons actions to alter geographical coverage lie in its outside(a) expansion program (p.7, para.3), which enables business growth by reaching new markets and new customers.The distinctiveness of properties that reflects the local culture (p.8, para.1) is another example of actions to diversify, which leads to differentiation. The actions to spike resources and capabilities that support quality and customer service improvement include the raising and development programs (p.9, para.1) and the new initiatives to offer added convenience to guests (p.10, para.2). By linking the actions with the strategy, it can b e summarised that a companys strategic actions are driven by the strategy it employs (Thompson et al., 2009).Strategic Fit with External EnvironmentStrategically applicable influences from the external environment can have a significant doctor on the companys strategy. Therefore, the strategy that the company employs must be responsive to the external environment (Thompson et al., 2009). The external environment outside Four Seasons affects its strategy in many aspects.PoliticalThe events such as the Iraq war, the family line 11th attack and terrorism impact the hotel industry significantly, which lead to reduced profitability. As a response to the circumstances, Four Seasons dedicates to international expansion. Through wider geographic presence, it allows Four Seasons to make more profits in the areas that are less(prenominal) impacted thus enhancing the overall profitability. Amidst these challenges, Four Seasons manages to maintain its position as the market leader, which owe s to its globalisation strategy.EconomicAs one of the largest factors that shape the strategy of Four Seasons, the economic recession pulls down the luxury hotels business and poses crisis for Four Seasons. It is no longer bankable to build and own hotels. As a result, Four Seasons shifts its focus from hotel ownership to hotel management services so that the financial risk is mainly borne by the hotel owners. Through management operations, Four Seasons is able to make the best use of its expertise and provide exceptional quality and service to the customers, thus gaining a competitive advantage over rivals. affableThe trend of increasing international activate both in business and leisure markets creates more opportunities for the hotel industry. In order to better serve the conk needs of its existing customers and attract new international travellers, Four Seasons continues to increase its geographic coverage by adding five to seven hotels per year to key destinations, thus c apitalising on the emerging opportunities. In response to the changing life-style of the global travellers who want personalised service, Four Seasons constantly innovates new slipway to make business travel more efficient and leisure travel more enjoyable. By doing so, the differentiation strategy through choice customer service is enhanced.TechnicalIn support of the rapid development of selective study technology, Four Seasons enhances its management services via operational a central reservations system, recommending information technology systems and developing certain database applications. It enables Four Seasons to be more profitable through optimised management services.LegalThe nature of the leasehold agreement with three properties makes it grueling to sell the ownership and shift to management services, which results in adding losses to Four Seasons accounting. It reinforces Four Seasons decision to concentrate on management operations. In order to reduce the impac t of these properties, Four Seasons continues to seek ways to improve the operating profitability.EnvironmentalTo follow the major trend of being environmental friendly, Four Seasons initiates recycling programs for glass, paper and other biodegradable garbage, in support of its uncompromised customer service. Such approaches help Four Seasons maintain its leadership position in luxury hotels.Strategic Fit with Internal EnvironmentA citywide evaluation of a companys resources and capabilities reveals the strengths and weaknesses in the present strategy so that adjustments and improvements can be made (Thompson et al., 2009). Four Seasons strategy facilitates the decision making on its internal activities in different ways.Four Seasons focuses on the market niche of luxury hotels. In order to better serve the diverse needs of the focused customers, Four Seasons extends into the fields of resorts and residential properties so that the customers who use the hotels can enjoy the same q uality in resorts and foyer clubs. By retaining the customer base and competing in different segments, Four Seasons is able to maintain its position as market leader.One of the strengths of Four Seasons is the showy locations of its properties. With business and leisure travellers as the target customers, Four Seasons locates its hotels centrally in the commercial and financial districts of the worlds leading cities, while resorts and residential properties in world-class leisure destinations. It allows Four Seasons to attract more authorisation customers with its location advantage that are unmatched by rivals, thus gaining a competitive advantage.One major distinctive competency of Four Seasons is the exceptional customer service, which is delivered by its valuable human assets. The human resource management at Four Seasons makes sure that its employees treat the guests as they would wish to be treated. With high staff morale and high employee satisfaction, Four Seasons custome rs can sojourn the best possible customer service. Through the training and development programs, Four Seasons equips its employees with advanced skills and expertise.As a result, the employees are able to deliver services above desired standards while carrying out innovative solutions to solve customers concerns. With these extremely trained and professional staffs, Four Seasons stresses ways to differentiate itself from rivals through superior customer service.The expertise in hotel management is another competitive potential of Four Seasons. In order to make the best use of its expertise, Four Seasons concentrates on hotel management operations. To improve the operating profitability, Four Seasons engages in all aspect of the hotel operations on behalf of the owners, even before the hotel is built.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Representations of Women in Early Irish and Welsh Literature Essay

Although thither are parallel of latitudes amid Irish and rip off sagas of elopework forcet, the powerful self confident wowork force depicted in these narratives do non represent the sincere women of Medieval Ireland and Wales. Proinsias Mac Cana has suggested that the dominant fictional characters of Deirdre and Grainne in their various(prenominal) tales (Longes mac nUislenn and Toruigh to each mavent Dhiarmada agus Ghrainne) are literary variations on the exemplar of the sovereignty goddess (Doan, 1985 90).Bitel (1996 2) asserts that Celticists wealthy person been seduced by these dominant feminine characters visualiseing them as representative of real women with considerable power over men, a depiction which if true should be reflected in the law tracts or custom in action(Stacey, 2002 1107). This typography will argue that the ecclesiastical and legal tracts of both Ireland and Wales offer some figures of women, judgements approximately women, and regulations for women.They do not even so present the stereotypical mediaeval fair sex as the sovereignty goddess depicted in the secular sagas. Because women left(a) no written records, we are dependent on male belles-lettres (probably all of the texts written in early Ireland and Wales) for a definition of char muliebrityhood and her cultural role. These male indites wrote of women in saints lives poems sagas and myths gnomic texts histories chronicles genealogies folktales theological tracts and extensive ecclesiastical tracts and secular laws (Bitel, 1996 12).Although these texts offer insights on women they moldiness be viewed through the hermeneutical lens of the socio-historical context of the era in which they were written. Early chivalric Ireland was a patriarchal society and a wo whiles role and identity was determined by patriarchal norms and conventions. The literati of this era did not influence charwo priming coat as an independent individual. Women existed only in relati on to men and therefore their representation in literature was not entirely object glass or according to Bitel consistent.Tensions exist between various texts. The portrayal of women as capricious beasts (Bitel, 1995137) presented in the eighth century wisdom text Tecosca Cormaic contrasts sagaciously with the recognition of a cleaning lady as home- irritater and wife with limited stamping ground to the law depicted in Cain Lanamna or the law of catchs (O Croinin, 1995 127) . The majority of the existing Irish law books were composed between the s even soth and ninth centuries.At this stage the Irish literati were members of the nobility educated in monastic communities. much were monks hardly this elite group withal included jurists, historians, poets and story tellers. Mc C atomic number 53 has suggested that these learned elite produced literature for the monastery which was heavily influenced by scriptural texts (Bitel, 1996 14). Donnchadh O Corrain, Liam Breatnach an d Aidan Breen have argued that there exists a close connection between ecclesiastical law and Irish vernacular law (Stacey, 2002 1108).Stacey asserts that although the legal sources from Wales (compiled in the duodecimal and thirteen centuries) are later than the Irish sources there is in addition a significant link between legal, poetic and ecclesiastical acquirement (2002 1108). The Irish penitential books written between the sixth and the ninth centuries identify conflict between the exaltations of Christian leaders and the customs of early Irish communities. These penitentials were designed as moral guides for confessors in attributing penance in the ceremony of confession (Gula, 1989 25). tally to Bitel, Christian clergy were intent on transferring kind subordination of sex from the kin group to the individual Christian (1987 67). Fox concurs with Bitel, insist that by liberating the individual from the bonds of clan and family, the church was attempting to reduce kins hip to its lowest super acid land denominator the nu blank family the lowest kinship group that is compatible with reproduction duration appearing to support basic kinship values (1993 109-110). The Clergy in promoting Christian morality for the individual attempted to reorganize Early Irish society. correspond to Bitel, the kin group were influential in controlling knowledgeable activity. This was necessity to ensure the survival of the partnership as an interdependent group. Archaeological grounds suggests that houses consisted of one room. This allowed for little individual privacy and sex was a born(p) and visible part of family life-time. Illicit encounters had to take place outside of the home, and even then they were monitored by the community. Any kind of sexual relationship that had to be conducted in secrecy was considered dangerous.The survival and welfare of the clan depended on neighborly stability and this principle determined the attitude of the pre-Christi an Irish toward sexuality. Sex in itself barely was not considered immoral. Celibacy was not visualised as a rightfulness in the secular literature. Cu Chulainns sexual exploits are recorded in the sagas however his casual encounters did not threaten the community (Bitel, 1987 70-71). Bitel asserts that the tension between individual desire and community need had unendingly to be resolved in favour of the community (1987 72), and herefore join was a contractual arrangement determined not by ro humannessce or love but by the necessity of producing chelaren and the survival of the kin group. chars reproductive capacities themselves are integrated into the economic life of the society. The image of woman depicted in Cain Lanamna is a woman whose social unrestrained and economic orientation is directed towards the family and home. Early Irish legality, commonly cognise as Brehon Law was a series of civil laws which governed every fount of daily life including matrimony and d isarticulate.Marriage and fall apart were interlinked by virtue of a contract agreed and a contract dissolved. Under the Brehon system, women were at large(p) to marry in one of nine ways, although the primary type of marriage, lanamnas comthinchuir was the approximately common. Both partners enter this marriage with equal financial resources. In the guerilla type of marriage, lanamnas for ferthinchur, the woman contributes little or no financial assets to the marriage. In the third category, lanamnas for bantinchur, the woman contributes the greater share of the marriage assets.These three categories undeniable formal pre-nuptial agreements. With the remaining six types of marital union (including cohabitation with a woman with family consent, voluntary eloping without family consent, voluntary abduction without family consent, illicit rendezvous, marriage by rape and marriage of two insane people) marriage entailed the assumption of financial responsibility for child rearing (O Croinin, 1995 128). Corresponding to the wide variety of marriages acknowledge by law, there were more grounds for disunite.A woman might divorce a man who failed to satisfy her sexual needs because he was sterile, impotent, bisexual or homosexual. In this instance she was empower to be paid her coibche in amplification to a fine in compensation. A woman could divorce her keep up on the grounds of indiscretion should he discuss intimate detail of their marriage outside of the home. A woman could in any case divorce her maintain should he abandon her either for the church or for a life on the road as he would no longer be in a get to maintain her. Physical abuse was in addition considered legitimate grounds for divorce.Even if the original blemish disappeared, a woman was entitled to the equivalent of her bride price as compensation. The laws are quite clear about the validity of female proof in matters concerning consummation of marriage. This testimony is verified by a physical examination of the woman by female dignitaries. In a case where a woman refuses her maintain his conjugal rights either because of a job pregnancy or her catamenial cycle, the law regarded her objections as valid. A woman could besides choose to divorce on grounds of infidelity although extra marital relations were acknowledge by law (O Croinin, 1995 129).O Croinin suggests that in general terms numerous a(prenominal) women were recognized by the law in their capacity as wives and in their own right as individuals (1995 133) Law texts are clear that a womans rights in divorce are specific to each type of marriage and related marriage contract. Lanamnas Comthinchuir was regarded as the most common type of marriage at this time. It was a dignified state for the wife, she was know as a be cuitchernsa, literally a woman of knock dominion, a woman of equal lordship (O Croinin. 1995 128).If this category of marriage ended in divorce, the woman reliable what she had in itially contributed to the marriage in addition to a share of the profit accrued from the couples joint activities during the marriage period. O Croinin records that the division of plaza was in accordance with fixed proportions one third went to the partner who provided the land one third to the partner who provided the argumentation and one third to the partner who provided the labour (1995 128). This last provision recognized the womans work in the home and on the farm.The spot type of marriage lanamnas for ferthinchur represented a different kind of divorce settlement. Since the woman provided neither land nor stock, she was entitled to half of her own handiwork and one sixth of the dairy produce in store. If she had worked diligently on the farm and in the home she took one ninth of the edible corn and senior meat in store. She overly received a sack of corn for a specified time. Divorce in the third category of marriage, lanamnas for bantinchur, ensured that the woman re tained a life interest in the farm.She could not however transfer any rights to the estate to her children. She could however marry one of the heirs to the post and preserve her childrens right to inherit. Although the Irish lawyers appealed to Scripture, particularly to Leviticus to justify parallel cousin marriages, church law declared parallel cousin marriages incestuous (O Corrain, 1985). The Welsh tractate the laws of women contains rules governing marriage and division of lieu in gothic Wales.There are four redactions of Welsh law manuscripts the Cyfnerth and the Blegywryd redactions both withhold from south Wales Iorwerth is classed as a north Wales redaction and finally the Latin manuscripts (there are similarities between the Latin laws and the Welsh redactions). Although the sources from Wales are dated to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, women in the Welsh tractate kindred women in Cain Lanamna are portrayed as wives and home-makers (Roberts, 2008 58-59).Stacey asserts that the most striking passage of the Laws of Women outlines the domestic and agricultural closes given(p) to each partner in cases where the marriage had lasted longer than seven eld (2002 1109). This passage is common to each of the Welsh redactions of the law books and can also be found in four of the five Latin compilations. The couple must divide their possessions equally, the pigs construct the property of the man and the woman takes possession of the sheep. If there are only sheep and goats, the sheep go to the man and the goats to the woman.The children are also divided between the couple two parts go to the elaborateher, the first and the youngest, and the middle to the mother (Stacey, 2002 1111). The division of household honorables is itemised all milk vessels, only for one pail and one dish becomes the property of the woman. The man is entitled to all of the drinking vessels and the riddle while the woman is entitled to the sieve. The man is entitled to t he upper stone of the quern and the woman to the lower stone. The bed enclothe which cover the couple becomes the property of the woman while the clothes which they put on belong to the man.The man receives the cauldron and the blanket and the pillows from the bed unitedly with the wood axe, coulter and all the sickles except for one which the woman obtains. The woman is granted the pan, the broad axe, the bill hook and all of the flax, linseed and wool. She also receives the plowshare. Any gold or silver is divided equally between the couple. The man is entitled to the corn above and below the ground, all of the hens and one cat. The remaining cats become the property of the woman. The woman receives the salted meat but if it is hung it becomes the property of the man.The woman is also granted as much flour as she can carry along with the cut meat and the part used cheese. They each retain their own clothes except for their cloaks which must be divided equally. Any balls of woo l in stock become the property of the sons (Stacey, 2002 1111). Like Irish Marriage Law, the Welsh Laws of Women attempted to fasten a measure of financial independence for each partner in the event of divorce. Un exchangeable Irish marriage law however which divided property according to specific marriage contracts, some rovisions in the Welsh divorce law appear illogical. Jenkins suggests that the Welsh division of property on divorce, attempts to ensure that each partner has the necessary provisions to snuff it but he asserts that the division of the quern stones is curious since they cannot be used independently (Stacey, 2002 1111). Similarly the coulter is granted to the man while the plowshare is received by the woman. Since both blades would have been required for planting this division appears to make little logical or practical sense.Stacey also points out that the man receives all of the corn and hens but only one cat to cling to them from vermin while the woman receiv es the remaining cats although she has no grain or hens to protect (Stacey, 2002 1113-1116). Welsh divorce law does not seem to be based on the wealth brought to the marriage by each troupe or indeed on the status of the marriage. In Irish Law the apportionment of property is determined by both of these factors (Stacey, 2002 1113). Stacey suggests that the division of property in a Welsh divorce is symbolic of the destructiveness of divorce and failed marriage.He asserts that this was a secular homily on the improvident nature of divorce (2002 1124). Although the marriage property is divided the woman ultimately is disadvantaged because low Welsh Law, she has no claim to land and must be well-provided with portable goods. Although women under Welsh law were afforded the opportunity to divorce their husbands referable to his impotency, leprosy or unsuitable breath (Roberts, 2008 63), Nerys Patterson suggests that the woman was further disadvantaged in the wake of marital separat ion female virginity was highly valued and her acquittance of virginity would affect her chances of remarriage (2002 1121).These medieval divorce laws clearly situate the woman in the home, rearing children, cooking, spinning wool and working on the farm. It is tempting to view these laws as depictions of a progressive egalitarian society, however the political and social realities of a womans life suggest otherwise. A womans legal definition derived from that of her father, brother or her legal husband. A legal tract on honour price (dire) defined womens legal and social position her father had charge over her when she is a girl, her husband when she is a wife, her sons when she is a widowed woman with children . . the Church when she is a woman of the Church i. e. , a nun.She is not capable of sale or buy or contract or transaction without the authorization of one of her aces (Bitel, 1996 8). According to Bitel, these legally and socially incapacitated women were the real Medbs of medieval Ireland. When measuring a womans status, the laws measured women against the legal norm of the free liberal male and as such a womans expense remained only half that of her male guardians honour price.The Irish literati along with many medieval authors considered female bodies as slight valuable copies of mens (Bitel, 1996 19). This principle is reflected in the only extant Irish medico-legal tracts namely Bretha Crolige and Bretha Dein Checht which accorded women less medical concern and food rations than men (Bitel, 1996 21). Women therefore were considered physically and psychologically less than man, less than human (Bitel, 1996 23). The ninth century Triads text, Trecheng Breth Fene unveiled some basic assumptions about the nature of woman.The Triads suggested that the three drops of a wedded woman were drops of blood (a good wife was a virgin at marriage) sweat and tears (a good wife should be willing to suffer hardship to support her husband and children). On e of the three misfortunes of a man was proposing marriage to a bad woman. According to the Triads, women were their husbands property and were akin to animals. When a man loaned either a woman or a horse, he had to transport it to be used by the borrower (Bitel, 1996 23).The wisdom text also suggested that like a cows udder, women through her womb, was one of the three renovators of the demesne (Bitel, 1996 24). Another wisdom text Tecosca Cormaic suggested that women should be feared like beasts because they were capricious beasts (Bitel, 1996 24). A womans physical characteristics and fertility therefore were animal like and unreliable. The eighth or ninth-century wisdom text Senbriathra Fithail considered the characteristics of a good wife (Bitel, 1996 27).Advising his pupil Cormac mac Airt, Fithal (a druid) take a firm stand that a good woman had common sense, prudence, modesty, excellent Irish, delicacy, mildness, honesty, wisdom, purity and intelligence (Bitel, 1996 28). A ll of these attributes according to Fithal were necessary for a woman to become a desirable wife. A bad wife on the other hand was characterised by wretchedness, stinginess, vanity, talkativeness, laziness, indolence, noisiness, hatefulness avarice, visiting, thieving, keeping trysts, lustfulness, tomfoolery and treachery (Bitel, 1996 28).Fithal asserted that it was possible to detect a womans character based on her physical appearance. He suggested that Cormac should avoid the fat short one the slender short one with curling whisker the fair tall one the dark-limbed, unmanageable one the dun drear yellow one and the slender prolific one who was lewd and covetous (Bitel, 1996 28). Fithal determined that the worst wife was a be cairn or a whore. A successful marriage however could be guarantee by a union with the tall, fair, very slender ones (Bitel, 1996 28).Fithal admitted to Cormac however that the ideal woman may not exist and that most women had character flaws. The author of Tecosca Cormaic was adamant that all women were chronically dissatisfied, bad tempered, untrustworthy, wanton, manipulative, ambitious, greedy, arrogant whiners (Bitel, 1996 29). Bitel suggests that the real problem with women is that they were not men and the writers of the gnomic tracts could only define them by their many indefinable natures they had similar physical bodies to men but were not men they had reproductive characteristics and temperaments similar to animals but were not animals.The only certainty appeared to be was that women must be controlled and her inferior position in society hold (Bitel, 1996 30). The writers of ecclesiastical canons suggested that women could only be redeemed by denying their female characteristics and their female sexuality. Bitel argues that canonists established a gender hierarchy (Bitel, 1996 32). Unlike the typologies found in secular and wisdom texts, the cannon scribes attributed a moral value to virginity and abstinence.Nuns were a ccorded a high moral value as were widows who took the veil (Bitel, 1996 32). Thomas O Loughlin suggests that the Collectio canonum hibernesis, a systematic collection of law, codified certain patristic theories producing an pinch of marriage as a state secondary to virginity (1997 188). The canonists justify their position by quoting Jerome who asserts that virginity follows the lamb wherever he goes (OLoughlin, 1997 192).Jerome expands on this theme suggesting that earth is populated by marriage, so heaven is by virginity (OLoughlin, 1997 192). The underlying concept is clear, virginity is exemplified and sexuality creates problems. According to OLoughlin this principle was the basis of ecclesiastical persuasion on marriage throughout the middle ages and Jeromes opinion that sexual activity was inferior and earthy in comparison to virginity which was noble and superior has been held responsible for the cult of virginity and celibacy in the Latin church (OLoughlin, 1997 193).Augu stine also considered sexuality dangerous but (quoting Paul in 1 Corinthians 7) asserted that while celibacy was the desired state, lawful marriage is to be favored to burning with desire and fornication (OLoughlin, 1997 193). The dangers of sexuality therefore were to be contained deep down the institution of marriage. Although canonists admitted that clerics could fall to sexual temptation, the general consensus was that women as the weaker sex were more likely to succumb to sexual temptation.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Theories of Aging

For this part of the assignment I am sacking to be describing devil theories of magazineing. Firstly I w inauspicious be describing the separation surmisal and thence the Activity theory. I w lighting then be comparing the similarities and differences surrounded by the two, and also writing up two baptistry studies of aged(prenominal)er flock and explain the development that occurs in grayer intent, relating post to the theories I w poorly(predicate) collapse discussed. Firstly the theory of Social Disengagement, separation means a somebodys withdrawal from involvement with whateverthing.The theory was send-off compose forward by two authors Cumming and Henry in 1961 who believed that it was natural for the of age(p) to withdraw from societal involvement with former(a)s, ascribable to having limit opportunities to interact with otherwise pile. There ar galore(postnominal) issues that limit social interaction which firmness of purposes in breakup. Some of th ese may be things like retirement, ill wellness, mobility, travel or technology.The theory of withdrawal was widely current as other theorists much(prenominal) as Bromley (1974) agreed with the theory arguing that although somewhat individuals fight the affect completely the route, disengagement of some sort is surround to come, simply because sexagenarian raft have neither the physical non the mental resources they had when they were young. secondly the Activity theory, this theory argues that grey-haireder batch bespeak to die hard mentally and socially diligent to limit the risks of disengagement. universe mobile in honest-to-god life chamberpot attend to state to overpower many of the problems and issues they will have to endure throughout the oldisher lifestage. Being active chamberpot include taking part in sports and activities, fall in clubs and groups to go on trips, outings, holidays and even simple things like continuing with hobbies much(preno minal) as farming or walking the dog. Being active is rattling(prenominal) important for many reasons when a person is in the later days of life. It is believed that its not enough to simple provide facilities for older people they must be educated to make use of them and encouraged to kick fixed habits.The master(prenominal) argument for the activity theory is that disengagement can ultimately result in loss of physical and mental skills callable to lack of practice. My first case study is of a man named Howard Lane, he died aged 75 days old and had been diagnosed with Alzheimers 9 age earlier. Over the 9 years his learn seriously deteriorated. Howard had had a genuinely(prenominal) active life with various jobs such as a salesclerk of Works at Par Docks, a mental nurse and other physically demanding roles. He had been married for 52 years and had two heavy(p) up children, a daughter Jennie who had two children and a son Ric terrible who had quaternary children.Howar d was a rattling involved grandparent throughout the whole of his grandchildrens lives until his condition deteriorated so in earnest he couldnt even tell who they were anymore. As Howard reached retirement he remained a really engaged active person despite the set he was now given as cosmos old. He truly much fitted the role within the activity theory, on a regular basis exercising, escorting his family, holding in contact with them in a image of ways. He and his married cleaning woman had a particular passion for ballroom dancing they had won competitionsHe had a very sizeable appetite, and had neer sell or drank at all throughout his life. Although Howard had always been healthy and had no previous health issues and had stayed active throughout his final lifestage he restrained developed the disease Alzheimers. As the sickness progressed Howard gradually changed as a person. He became forgetful, got illogical easily, and as he began to seriously deteriorate he became violent at terms, physically incapable of doing things for himself, he would forget things that had happened and who people were.Further into his illness Howard became more and more disengaged. His whole life had changed overdue to the process of ageing a massive with the unfortunate illness he had. not only had the disengagement affected Howard as a person it was also affecting a lot almost him. Firstly the most diaphanous effect it was having was on Howards family. They began to be invariably worry to the toweringest degree him therefore would be unendingly in contact asking him if he was ok. It also drift a large amount of stress on his wife Vera, and because she was in her older age as well she engraft it very hard to deal with the stress she was under.By the time Howard was the age of 71 Vera had no other option but to put Howard in a breast feeding home so he could receive the bring off that he needed. due to Howards illness Vera had now become disengaged, she had worn out(p) all of her time looking later on her hubby, worrying astir(predicate) him and see him never-endingly. Another study factor that affected Veras stress was the fees she had to endure at the nursing home. She was very worried more or less the scale of the cost and was worried about having to sell her home.She had gradually lost contact with her friends and had no time for any personal hobbies or even time to aright look after herself and because of this Vera had become stressed and run down and was purpose caring for Howard very hard to get it on with. Her biggest worry and fear constantly being how she would cope with it if Howard died. Bereavement is usually hard to cope with for the gray especially disengaged people, they are likely to feeling more uncaring and wholly and this is what Vera was panic-struck of. In actual fact Vera died suddenly in declination 2003, shortly followed by Howard June 2004.By this time Howard had no see to iting of any iodin around him as he had little response to anything, therefore he did not grieve for his wife as he didnt even understand that she was gone. Their family described it as a blessing because in this way Vera never had to cope with the sorrow of losing her partner and neither did he. Overall retirement did have a appointed effect on Vera and Howard to begin with. They had more exemption to be active, watch their hobbies, spend time together, and with their loved ones.However old age brought ill health which caused Vera and Howard to disengage and become isolated from others which proceed to bring ill health and stress. My second case study is about a woman named shame Cohen. condolence Cohen is an 84 year old woman, she had previously been a teacher for nearly 40 years. ruth has one son of 60 who has two daughters Lisa and Issie, Lisa has a son of 17. pity is a very old woman and has a trope of health problems including arthritis, high blood pressure, and order of batt le and hearing problems.However Ruth has wind instrument a very healthy and active retirement. Since Ruth has retired she has done voluntary drill for a number of charities and her local church as she is a very religious woman. level off in her late 70s Ruth attends church either Sunday and helped to run the local Sunday school. She regularly met her friends from church to go out for tea. She tries to come across her children and grandchild as much as she can until now due to her eyesight she cannot drive anymore so her only way of seeing them is to get the bus.In her old age, Ruth despite good-tempered being so active has become sooner frail and is frightened easily therefore tries to avoid going to places with people she doesnt know, she tends to stay in her own village, go to the same shops and see the same people every day. Ruth was married for 60 years to James, unfortunately 14 years ago James passed away due to a shopping center attack. Ruth obviously had a hard time with the loss of her husband of 60 years however because of the lifestyle Ruth led she managed to entertain on with her life and avoided becoming disengaged and easily accepted the support and help of ther whereas a lot of people cannot do so so easily. Because of Ruths personality and the way she was her family didnt feel like they had to constantly worry about her and they knew she would be getting on fine without their constant care. However Ruth is getting rather old now so they do visit more frequently and her granddaughter Issie bought her a dog to preserve her company and occupied. As Ruth entered her 80s the physical ageing process could no longer be avoided and began to take over her life.She became very weak and could only walk with a baby-walker frame, she became increasingly isolated in her home due to mobility issues and although people did visit she began to feel nongregarious and depressed. This case study is perfect evidence of the disengagement theory. Although Ruth remained active and dealt with the bereavement she endured and her health issues it was inevitable that age caught up on her, she lead a fulfilling retirement and kept up all of her routines and hobbies as long as she physically could but eventually her mobility extra her life and effect her emotionally as well as physically.Theories of senescenceFor this part of the assignment I am going to be describing two theories of ageing. Firstly I will be describing the Disengagement theory and then the Activity theory. I will then be comparing the similarities and differences between the two, and also writing up two case studies of older people and explain the development that occurs in older life, relating back to the theories I will have discussed. Firstly the theory of Social Disengagement, disengagement means a persons withdrawal from involvement with anything.The theory was first put forward by two authors Cumming and Henry in 1961 who believed that it was natural for the elde rly to withdraw from social involvement with others, due to having restricted opportunities to interact with other people. There are many issues that limit social interaction which results in disengagement. Some of these may be things like retirement, ill health, mobility, travel or technology.The theory of disengagement was widely accepted as other theorists such as Bromley (1974) agreed with the theory arguing that although some individuals fight the process all the way, disengagement of some sort is bound to come, simply because old people have neither the physical not the mental resources they had when they were young. Secondly the Activity theory, this theory argues that older people need to stay mentally and socially active to limit the risks of disengagement.Being active in older life can help people to overcome many of the problems and issues they will have to endure throughout the older lifestage. Being active can include taking part in sports and activities, joining clubs and groups to go on trips, outings, holidays and even simple things like continuing with hobbies such as gardening or walking the dog. Being active is very important for many reasons when a person is in the later years of life. It is believed that its not enough to simple provide facilities for older people they must be educated to make use of them and encouraged to abandon fixed habits.The main argument for the activity theory is that disengagement can ultimately result in loss of physical and mental skills due to lack of practice. My first case study is of a man named Howard Lane, he died aged 75 years old and had been diagnosed with Alzheimers 9 years earlier. Over the 9 years his condition seriously deteriorated. Howard had had a very active life with various jobs such as a Clerk of Works at Par Docks, a mental nurse and other physically demanding roles. He had been married for 52 years and had two grown up children, a daughter Jennie who had two children and a son Richard who had four children.Howard was a very involved grandparent throughout the whole of his grandchildrens lives until his condition deteriorated so badly he couldnt even tell who they were anymore. As Howard reached retirement he remained a very engaged active person despite the label he was now given as being old. He very much fitted the role within the activity theory, regularly exercising, seeing his family, keeping in contact with them in a number of ways. He and his wife had a particular passion for ballroom dancing they had won competitionsHe had a very healthy appetite, and had never smoked or drank at all throughout his life. Although Howard had always been healthy and had no previous health issues and had stayed active throughout his final lifestage he still developed the disease Alzheimers. As the illness progressed Howard gradually changed as a person. He became forgetful, got confused easily, and as he began to seriously deteriorate he became violent at times, physically inca pable of doing things for himself, he would forget things that had happened and who people were.Further into his illness Howard became more and more disengaged. His whole life had changed due to the process of ageing along with the unfortunate illness he had. Not only had the disengagement affected Howard as a person it was also affecting a lot around him. Firstly the most obvious effect it was having was on Howards family. They began to be constantly worry about him therefore would be constantly in contact asking him if he was ok. It also put a large amount of stress on his wife Vera, and because she was in her older age as well she found it very hard to deal with the stress she was under.By the time Howard was the age of 71 Vera had no other option but to put Howard in a nursing home so he could receive the care that he needed. Due to Howards illness Vera had now become disengaged, she had spent all of her time looking after her husband, worrying about him and visiting him constan tly. Another major factor that affected Veras stress was the fees she had to pay at the nursing home. She was very worried about the scale of the costs and was worried about having to sell her home.She had gradually lost contact with her friends and had no time for any personal hobbies or even time to properly look after herself and because of this Vera had become stressed and run down and was finding caring for Howard very hard to cope with. Her biggest worry and fear constantly being how she would cope with it if Howard died. Bereavement is usually hard to cope with for the elderly especially disengaged people, they are likely to feel more isolated and alone and this is what Vera was frightened of. In actual fact Vera died suddenly in December 2003, shortly followed by Howard June 2004.By this time Howard had no understanding of anyone around him as he had little response to anything, therefore he did not grieve for his wife as he didnt even understand that she was gone. Their fam ily described it as a blessing because in this way Vera never had to cope with the bereavement of losing her partner and neither did he. Overall retirement did have a positive effect on Vera and Howard to begin with. They had more freedom to be active, pursue their hobbies, spend time together, and with their loved ones.However old age brought ill health which caused Vera and Howard to disengage and become isolated from others which continued to bring ill health and stress. My second case study is about a woman named Ruth Cohen. Ruth Cohen is an 84 year old woman, she had previously been a teacher for nearly 40 years. Ruth has one son of 60 who has two daughters Lisa and Issie, Lisa has a son of 17. Ruth is a very old woman and has a number of health problems including arthritis, high blood pressure, and sight and hearing problems.However Ruth has lead a very healthy and active retirement. Since Ruth has retired she has done voluntary work for a number of charities and her local chu rch as she is a very religious woman. Even in her late 70s Ruth attends church every Sunday and helped to run the local Sunday school. She regularly met her friends from church to go out for tea. She tries to visit her children and grandchild as much as she can however due to her eyesight she cannot drive anymore so her only way of seeing them is to get the bus.In her old age, Ruth despite still being so active has become quite frail and is frightened easily therefore tries to avoid going to places with people she doesnt know, she tends to stay in her own village, go to the same shops and see the same people every day. Ruth was married for 60 years to James, unfortunately 14 years ago James passed away due to a heart attack. Ruth obviously had a hard time with the loss of her husband of 60 years however because of the lifestyle Ruth led she managed to carry on with her life and avoided becoming disengaged and easily accepted the support and help of ther whereas a lot of people canno t do so so easily. Because of Ruths personality and the way she was her family didnt feel like they had to constantly worry about her and they knew she would be getting on fine without their constant care. However Ruth is getting rather old now so they do visit more frequently and her granddaughter Issie bought her a dog to keep her company and occupied. As Ruth entered her 80s the physical ageing process could no longer be avoided and began to take over her life.She became very weak and could only walk with a Zimmer frame, she became increasingly isolated in her home due to mobility issues and although people did visit she began to feel lonely and depressed. This case study is perfect evidence of the disengagement theory. Although Ruth remained active and dealt with the bereavement she endured and her health issues it was inevitable that age caught up on her, she lead a fulfilling retirement and kept up all of her routines and hobbies as long as she physically could but eventually her mobility limited her life and effected her emotionally as well as physically.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Holes Essay

Novels atomic number 18 extremely important dissever in peoples life. They teach us valuable lessons and provide an escape from the real world. Louis Sachars novel Holes, allows striplings to feel for the characters and also allows them to revive to what character is going through. In the novel Holes, there atomic number 18 some characters that teenagers can relate to. One of these characters is Stanley. Stanley is the main character from the novel. When he frontmost arrives at Camp Green Lake Stanley was bullied by the inmates and put in his place. He soon became friends with the inmates from group D. Everyone in group D had a nickname. Stanley had nonetheless to get one but when he was called Caveman for the first cartridge holder he finally felt that he was accepted into the group. you coming solitudinarian? Said squid. Stanley looked around to see that armpit and squid were talking to him. other character from the novel that teenagers can relate to is nobody. crypto graph is a small, faint character who Stanley becomes great friends with in the beginning of the novel. When Zero became friends with Stanley, the ratifier learnt that Zero is silent because he does not equivalent answering questions because he is cagy of people like Mr. Pendanski, who always mock him. Teenagers can relate to this because they are always wary of what people think ab let on them. Zero was called poor fish and dull all the time which makes Zero angry but he cant do anything about it because he is a diffuse smaller than the rest of the inmates. He is so stupid he doesnt even know he is stupid. Zero represents an incompetent teenager that we can all relate to at some point in our life.Louis Sachar uses many newspaper publishers in the novel Holes. One of these themes is friendship. The benefits of forming solid friendships are understandably shown in the text. Stanley and Zeros friendship leads to survival and wealth. Once Stanley became Zeros friend he feels hap pier than he has ever felt in his life. False friends who are only friendly when they are getting something they want, like X-Ray, are shown to be dangerous. Once X-Ray stops getting benefits out of his friendship with Stanley, he becomes hostile towards him. Another very important theme from the novel is Bullying. Bullying is used throughout the novel, which helps teenagers feel and understand what the characters are going through. Bullying is the act upon a person or persons do harm physically or mentally. This theme adds extra emotion to the novel.The both characters Zero and Stanley are used to generate an authentic and recognisable verbalism in the book. Stanley and Zero bond throughout the text and Sachar modifies the language when they are present to relax the reader, so they can interpret the text in their own way this quote clearly describes the beginning of their friendship and allows the reader to warm up to the characters.ConclusionLouis Sachar uses all these techniqu es to create a absorbing novel that all teenagers can relate to. Sachar uses language techniques appropriately and it enhances the books attracter and makes teenagers continue to read the book

A Border Passage by Leila Ahmed

Leila Ahmed begins her autobiography, A Border Passage From Cairo to America A Womans Journey, It was as if there were to life itself a quality of music, immediately entrenching the tint of her early life story in the senses, in instinctthe tools that, in a higher place tot totallyy else, enable her and the reader to retrace her steps from curious, observant misfire to introspective, self-determined woman.This story, however, is non but about Ahmeds self-discovery as a woman and feminist, provided also about the sociopolitical and historical events that took place in Egypt during the 1940s and 50s. As a witness to her countrys most dramatic period, from the end of British regulate to the birth of Arab nationalism, Ahmeds childhood is permanently shaped by the loss of Egypts multicultural and tolerant identity.Escaping a country she no longer recognizes, Ahmed is seemingly left over(p) with only her fathers values of education, her mothers perspective on religion through the verbal tradition, and the memories of past places and people that rise to the surface like oases by which to pilot a new world. This new world, surprisingly, is not without its own lack of tolerance, an determine that alters her preconceptions of westbound civility.Though Ahmed does, at prison terms, disturb the natural and sensual narrative of the piss with clinical and academic passages (most are near the end of the novel), she rarely writes from a place of finality or total understanding, giving the impression that her move around as an Egyptian-American, Arab, and modern woman is far from over, if ever.Leila accounts a in the flesh(predicate) account statement of her childhood in Egypt, education in England, and teaching in America. macrocosm a competent and fine educator, she tempts with seemingly casual talk it is only afterwards that it is realized how much she has given and how mesmerizing the voyage has been. She reports a large amount of Egyptian culture, customs , history and sociology.This also includes some undercoat on the idea of Arabness, as well as a glister preface to the distinction between the Islam of men and the Islam of women. The portrayals of her grandmothers store will for certain ring the bells of memory with any Western woman who spent judgment of conviction listening to erstwhile(a) women in the kitchen at family meetings. (Shereen, 2003)Woman has always been distinctly seen as a creative cause of human life. Traditionally, though, woman has been thought not only dimensionnally subordinate to man but also a key fruit source of appeal and sin. In Greek mythology, for instance, a woman, Pandora, undecided the prohibited box and caused epidemics and sorrow to mankind. Ancient Roman law pictured woman as children, forever lower than man.In the easterly, initially, the behavior for woman was much encouraging. In Early Egypt, for instance, women were privileged by some property rights and personal freedoms after marria ge, but obligated submission of women toward men.Wives had to walk behind their husbands. Women did not have the right to own property, and widows could not marry again. In East as well as West, male children have a election over female children.On the other hand, when they were permitted personal and rational freedom, women made all important(predicate) accomplishments. Nuns played an important role in the devout life of europium during the middle Ages. Aristocratic women benefited from authority and status. Whole eras were effected by women leadership for example, 16th century Queen Elizabeth of England, 18th century Catherine the Great of Russia, and nineteenth century Queen Victoria of England.Customarily a middle-class girl in Western society was inclined to be educated from her mothers pattern that cleaning, cooking, and condole with for children were the deeds expected of her. Tests made in the 1960s proved that the scholastic success of girls was better in the lower cl asses than in higher education.The key cause given was that the girls own hope declined as neither their relatives nor their teachers inadequacy them to arrange for a future other than that of matrimony and parenthood. This propensity has been change in last decades.Proper education for girls conventionally has been less important as compared to that for boys. In colonial America girls have separate schools for girls, where they could get education. They could go to the masters schools for boys if there was any room this happened generally in summer time when majority of the boys worked.As the 19th century ended, the number of female students had improved significantly. high education specifically was widened by the increase of womens educational institutions and the entrance of women to colleges, institutions, and universities. In 1870 an estimated twenty per centum of college and university students were females. By the advent of twentieth century the ratio had improved to ov er one third.By the beginning of the 20th century, 19 percent of all undergraduate college degrees were obtained by women. By the year 1984 the number had penetratively improved to 49 percent. The number of graduate students was also increased significantly. By the mid of 1980s women obtained 49 percent of all post-graduate degrees and around 33 percent of doctoral degrees. Women constituted up to 53 percent of all college students in the year 1985.Ahmed concentrates on how historical and political pressures formulate various(prenominal) identities, specifically those of Arab Muslim women. Here, though, the theme is Ahmeds own individuality as an dexterous a woman, a Muslim and an aristocracy Egyptian at hearthstone in both East and West. In graceful literary style, she narrates her childhood in Cairo, Egypt, her college years at Cambridge and of teaching in America and Abu Dhabi.In Ahmeds shaded depiction, authorities are not the background to peoples lives but their fashion. T he internalization of colonial conducts, the 1952 rebuff and Arab nationalism, persuade of Zionism, class issues, and the political affairs of gender functions are enter into her life and her near one. Most emotional is the conversion of Ahmeds contempt for her traditional Arabic-speaking mother, who spends her life with female relatives, into a consideration of how these women made logic of their lives.Certainly, all through this runny chronicle, she offensively refines the terms by which men Western and Arab have defined women through her own cross-cultural judgments of womens communities, as when she explains the Girton College (at Cambridge) for women as a harem the harem as I had lived it, the harem of older women presiding over the young. (Ahmed, pg. 183)A Border Passage is not a usual memoir. It has galore(postnominal) factors of an autobiography, but it is also a collection of well rational essays on some of the most complicated phases of the Egyptian history and culture.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Poetry Essay

Poetry is a form of literary art and uses particular forms and conventions to suggest alternative meaning in the talking to and to evoke rough emotional responses. There ar punishing patterns in poetry which create further meaning, such as assonance, head rhyme and onomatopoeia. These enceinte effects assume a particular role in a poem. Poems often make heavy use of imagery and word linkup to quickly need emotions. 1 Poetry is distinguished from prose because are used some techniques such as rhyme, meter and repetition.The comparable unspoilts can convey varied meanings and it depends on the context of a poem. Sound patterns can be likewise discovered in some advertising slogans. In advertisement we have the freedom to change the natural social club of the language. It depends on the product and the hindquarters group of consumers. The advertising text has to capture the readers or listeners fear.Therefore the natural order of the language is modified, determine an d stylized. One of the most frequently used devices in slogans, catchphrases and article titles is alliteration Dont Live a Little, Live a bingo 2 The advertising slogans are the most effective means of drawing attention to one or more aspects of the product. In this text we can flaw an example of foregrounding. Deviation, which is a linguistic phenomenon, has an important psychological effect on readers (and hearers). If a part of a poem is deviant, it becomes especially noticeable, or perceptually prominent. We call this psychological effect foregrounding. 3 Most of the writers use the sound of spoken communication in such a way that the readers attention is straightaway engaged.The most common mean which is involved by the writers is repetition. Our attention is entranced and we start analysing the reasons why the writers use it. We can recognise play of sounds superficial/lotto. There is also alliteration- the repetition of l and t sounds. Alliteration refers to tbe repeti tion of the same or similar consonants. /t/ is a voiceless, alveolar, plosive sound. It is produced without vibrations of the birdsong cords, by obstructing the airflow in the vocal tract. /l/ is a voiced, bilateral, double and approximant sound.The vocal cords are vibrating during the articulation and the airstream flows over the two sides of the tongue. When poets construct a poem they carefully choose words for their meanings, intension and sounds. According to capital of Minnesota Simpson we make connections amongst, on the one hand, the physical properties of the sound represented within a text and, on the other, the non- linguistic phenomena primed(p) outside a text to which these sounds relate4. The sound effects of the poetic text are basic to the interpretation of poetry.When a relationship between sound and meaning is obvious, then it can reinforce the significance of a word for speaker and hearer. The way people sound their language can, certainly, be an indication o f their individual or cultural personalities Speakers of a diametrical language, from a different culture, might associate different implications with such sounds. 5 The most critics are interested in the form of the poem and its meaning, and the poets message. According to Paul Fussell Poetic forms are like that they tend to say things even if words are not at the moment fitted to their patterns.As Louis MacNeice has said, In whatsoever poets poem the shape is half the meaning. . 6 Poetic forms refer to different sets of rules followed by poems. The rules describe such ascpects as the meter or speech rhythm of the poem, the rhyme scheme or the use of alliteration. One of the basic ways in which poetry can be distinguished from prose is the possession of clock time. most critics maintain the idea that the rhythm and metre are the same thing. The fight between some(prenominal) is in the way in which they relate to the whole.The metre is an extra layer of rhythmic structuring. 7 The rhythm is the apprehension of a serial of events as a regularly repeated pulse of energy, an experience which has a muscular as well as a mental ratio. 8 The following bournes aim to discuss the relationship between sound patterns, their function and their contribution towards the meaning a certain poem generates. Attention exit be paid to the poem My Last Duchess, written by Robert Br experienceing. He was an English poet and playwright whose verses of salient monologues made him one of the most famed Victorian poets today.The poem is anthologised as an example of the dramatic monologue, in which an determine character, or person, is the sole speaker that is, the voice in the poem is acting a role as in drama. 9 The structure and the panache of this poem play a significant role. It contains three formal elements an occasion, a speaker, and a hearer. The words in dramatic monologues not only convey setting and action but also reveal the speakers character. The comme nts which he makes reveal information about his personality and psyche, knowingly or unknowingly.The main focus of a dramatic monologue is the personal information, not the topic which the speaker happens to be discussing. We can see the personality of both poet and speaker in dramatic monologue, and can be aware of them direct as a reflex in the elements of action which is constant figure of speech and vice versa. 10 brown defined the poem as a dramatic lyric. It is dramatic because there is an actor in it and performs a scene. However, at the same time it cant be said that it is a exemplary lyric poem. The poem appears as one half of a conversation. He is not speaking his thoughts aloud to himself while he is alone.In world-wide poems are written with the full body of words and have their own meaning. Meaning is something the reader intuits through the distorting influence of form, something the writer whitethorn choose, but does not necessarily control. 11 The goal of Browni ng is to illustrate a scene. There is a relation between sounds and meanings, the reality which language whitethorn represent. In his piece of work Robert Browning uses many techniques enjambment, a naive rhyme scheme and caesura to convey various characteristics and qualities about the speaker and the situation. paddy field Short claims that The basic idea was that poems should enact what they described the sound moldiness seem an echo to the sense (Alexander Pope, An Essay on Criticism, line 365). Musicality revolves around phonetic and rhythmic effects in particular, and it is and then necessary to be able to do metrical analysis in order to be able to explain important effects in many poems. 12 My last Duchess is written in iambic pentameter in order to imitate natural speech so that the poet is not confused with the persona. Brownings intention is to imitate natural speech could be to outer space himself from the Duke, who is the speaker in the poem.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Clinical Interview Questions Essay

tenner Questions 1. interest discover me nearly what type of person your fuss was and your kind with him. 2. Please tell me about what type of person your mother was and your kin with him. 3. Please tell me about your alliances with siblings and other close relatives 4. Please tell me what you remember about about your childhood. 5. Please tell me about your most memorable experiences in grade school, high school, and college (if applicable). 6. Please tell me about any romantic relationships you have had and whether you ar in a relationship now, or if you would like to be.Why or why not? 7. Please tell me about what makes you happiest in your current life. 8. Please tell me about what upsets you most in your personal life. 9. Please tell me about any dreams or fantasies you can remember. 10. How would you like to see yourself in five years from now? Lets assume I have a patient that has problems with depression due to issues that have happened throughout his or her life . The foremost question my patient responds by saying not that good.I would go into asking for more detail as to why the relationship with ones father was not good. I would learn if there was something there that would answer me to help the patient with their depression. As with most of these questions the patient would be responding in a way that they feel which would help me to learn what has caused the problems and why the patient may or may not be able to let go. I could learn a lot from a person by these questions because they are questions that ask a person to open up without being so noticeable.

Ratio analysis Essay

proportion analytic thinking is a gumshoe brought by individuals practice sessiond to respect abbreviation of information in the financial split inments of a patronage. The balance analysis forms an each(prenominal) classic(p) part of the financial analysis which is a vital part in the headache planning. There be 3 different ways of assessing transaction organizationes functioning and these ar solvency, earningsability and proceeding. Ratio analysis assists managers to work let on the proceeds of the comp all by figuring the meshability balances. Also, the management elicit evaluate their revenues to check if their productivity. Thus, probability ratios be helpful to the caller-out in evaluating its writ of execution based on au and sotic earning. By measuring the solvency ratio, the companies be sufficient to keep an eye on the correlation between the pluss and the liabilities.If, in any case, the liabilities exceed the as bands, the company is satis factory to know its financial position. This is helpful in case they wish to set up a plan for bestow re pass onment. Ratio analysis is in any case helpful in analysing the performance of a company. Through financial analysis, companies buttocks review their performance in the early(prenominal) course of studys. This is also helpful in identifying their weaknesses and improving on them. stopping point lovely Foods trains to example ratio analysis beca employ it is a valu adequate withall for the business sector enterprises management to determine the performance of a business and to control the cost measures when necessary. Also, ratio analysis helps them monitor and identify issues that stand be highschoollighted and resolved. However, ratio analysis doesnt take into method of accounting apart factors such as a worldwide recession.Measuring the Solvency of semblance bonny FoodsNow, I will use 2 rations to measure the solvency of snipe bewitching Foods. First, I will channelise the current ratio for nuance hunky-dory Foods. This estimates whether the business domiciliate pay debts due within one year from pluss that it expects to turn into cash within that year. It is measured dividing current assets by the current liabilities. By looking at balance sheet I can see that colour first-rate Foods current asset value is 28500 and the current liability value is 17000. I will call for to turning point 28500 by 17000 to rally out the current ratio. This would give me an upshot of 1.7. This means that for each 1 owned they nurture 1.70 current asset. The render should normally non fall below 1.5. If it reaches a value of 1 because there big businessman be concerns there about not world able to meet the debts of the short assets. However, we can see that Polish fair Foods current ratio tells us that this is a solvent business. This means that it is able to sink its debts when they are due to be paid. If the business is not solvent, then it means that it cant do this. Being solvent would help the business to maintain their confidence.On the separate hand, if the current ratio goes higher than 2 magnate indicate that too much finance is tied up in a short-term assets, which can result that not too much money are being keep within the organisation. Secondly, I will measure the sulphurous run. This is the same as the current ratio however it is a harsher test of ability to settle short-term debts. It is more(prenominal) accurate as it takes away the furrow and shows how surface a business can meet its current liabilities. To find out the acid test I first occupy to subtract investment trust from the current assets and then carve up the current liabilities by the act of that. So Polish finely Foods count of sway is 8500 from the current assets which is 28500. The answer of the subtraction is 20000. Now I would need to divide the answer by the current liability which is 17000 which would giv e me the terminal acid test ratio of 1.20.This calculation removes the uncertain variable of mental strain, which might be not too important to the business. Similarly, this data shows us that Polish Fine Foods is a solvent business and it has the ability to meet its short-term debts. The business could continue to operate as it is soon looking to be masteryful. With the current ratio of 1.70 and the acid test of 1.20 Polish Fine Foods is a stable business. It is a healthy figure and shows that the business is in a good position. We can see that 0.50 was tied up in stock and this is not a lot. Both rations show that the business is able to pay for its debts and they can also earn more income which means that the business would gave more lucre as the business is solvent.Measuring the Profitability of Polish Fine FoodsProfitability ratios show a companys overall strength and performance. To measure the crystalliseability of Polish Fine Foods I will use 3 ratios. First ratio is gross earnings gross earn. The gross turn a gain ground margin looks at cost of goods sold as a character of gross revenue. This ratio looks at how well a company controls the cost of its account and the manufacturing of its products. The larger the gross profit margin, the better for the company. To calculate the gross profit margin I need to divide the gross profit by the gross revenue and then clipping it by 100 to find the percentage. So, to find the gross profit margin for Polish Fine Foods I have to divide 45900 by 145400 and this would give me the answer 0.3156. To find out the percentage, I now need to multiply it by 100 and the answer is 32%. The gross profit margin for Polish Fine Foods is used to comparison how much value is added to an item in between being bought in as stock or materials and being sold by the business.A low gross profit margin could show that there are high stock cost or maybe that retail footing is being too low. If the business has a hig h gross profit margin then it indicates that the business is financial stable. We can see that Polish Fine Foods doesnt have a high gross profit margin- it is a bit more than a quarter. This means that the business is in a secure position. They could be more successful if they are pass to try and cuckold all the stock they have first or else of getting other, so in this way the profit might increase. side by side(p) ratio that Im press release to use in secernate to measure the profitability of Polish Fine Foods is solve profit margin. The sack up profit margin shows how much of each sales amount shows up as net income after all expenses are paid. The net profit margin measures profitability after consideration of all expenses including taxes, interest, and depreciation. To calculate the net profit margin I need to divide the net profit by the sales and then multiply by 100.Therefore, to find the net profit margin for Polish Fine Foods I need to divide 14500 by 145400 and thi s would give me an answer of 0.0997. So after multiplying the answer by 100, I got 10% which shows the amount of net profit margin. This ratio is used to decide which of a range of products are worth continuing with. A low net profit margin might indicate that cost are too high. Polish Fine Foods net profit margin is quite low, so they could try to improve this by trying to sell the stocks first and then get other instead of buying a great deal of them at once which would get more money out. At the moment, the business is in a stable position, but they should try and reduce their be in order of battle to increase the profit theyre making. Lastly, I would use return on capital employed (ROCE) ratio to measure Polish Fine Foods profitability. This is the percentage return which makes the business able to generate the long capital employed.To calculate ROC, I need to divide the net profit by the capital employed and then multiply it by 100. Therefore, to ok the ROCE for Polish Fine Foods I need to divide their net profit which is 14500 by the capital employed which is 24500 this will then give an answer of 0.591, and then multiply that by 100. The final answer for ROCE is 60%. This ratio has been used to show how efficiently a business is using its capital. The ROCE shows us now that Polish Fine Foods is doing well at the moment and they are using their money carefully. Polish Fine Foods overall has good ratios that currently keep them stable. Basically, all these ratios show the amount of profit generated by the company as a per cent of the sales generated. The objective of margin analysis is to detect consistency or positive or negative trends in a companys earnings. Polish Fine Foods is doing well, and looks like it is a stable business. However, there is still place for improvement, e.g they could try and reduce their costs and increase their profits.Measuring the Performance of Polish Fine FoodsA suppuration business needs to be closely and careful ly managed to ensure the success of new investment and expanding plans. Putting performance measurements in place can be an important way of keeping track on the happen of their business. It gives vital information about whats happening now and it also provides the starting point for setting targets that will help owner apply their plans for growth. Now I will measure the performance of Polish Fine Foods using 3 ratios. First ration is stock perturbation. This measures how long stock is being held before it is replaced. To calculate stock turnover ratio I need to divide average stock by cost of sales and the multiply it by 365 old age. To find Polish Fine Foods stock turnover I need to find the average stock first. The opening stock is 5250 and the closing stock is 8500. By adding them two and then divide it by 2, it would give me the average stock which is 6875.Then I need to divide 6875 by the cost of sales 99500 and it would give me the answer of 0.06909547738. Then if I will m ultiply it by 365 it would give me the answer 25 days which is the average number of says the stocks are being held before being replaced. If the stock goes out of date and this could happen to Polish Fine Foods as their merchandising food, stock should be held for a shorter period of time. It is a disadvantage to the business if they held stock for a long period of time because it can be expensive and the stock can deteriorate in value. However, a high turnover of stock can be seen as an indicator of a stable business. Polish Fine Foods has a low stock turnover, and this might be because it is a sole trader and it has been opened up recently. Polish Fine Foods can run successfully as they are able to sell their stock in less time than a month which means that the products dont go out of date by the time they replace the stock. Next ratio Im going to use is debtor show period.This measures how long debtors take to pay. To calculate debt collection period for Polish Fine Foods I need to divide 18000 which is debtors by 145400 being the sales and multiply the answer by 365 days. This gives me the answer 45 days, on average. It means that it takes 45 days for the debtors to pay the business. Other businesses bear the debtors 90 days until they pay the money. For Polish Fine Foods it only takes 45 days which means that is less time, so they wont flavor any financial problems, struggling to get money from the debtors in order to buy some stock. This ratio shows that the business is performing well as they dont face any cash shortage which would slow up the business down.The last ratio Im going to use in order to measure the performance of Polish Fine Foods is asset turnover. It measures how high the level of sales are in relation to the assets of the business. To calculate the asset turnover I have to divide the amount of sales by the assets. For Polish Fine Foods the sales amount is 145300 and the assets value is 24500. By dividing them two it would give me the answer of 6. This shows that the business earns approximately 6 in sales for every 1. Knowing all this measurement is very important for the business owner because they can see how they are performing in different areas.ConclusionThis report was written to illustrate the financial state of Polish Fine Foods. So I used accounting rations as evidence to measure its solvency, profitability and performance. First of all, I found out that Polish Fine Foodss current ratio is 1.70. Another ratio I used is the acid test which gave me an answer of 1.20. This is the same as the current ratio however it is a harsher test of ability to settle short-term debts. These ratios tell us that this is a solvent business. This means that it is able to settle its debts when they are due to be paid. If the business is not solvent, then it means that it cant do this. Being solvent helps the business to maintain their confidence and make it operate more successfully. Another set of 3 ratios that show us the profitability of Polish Fine Foods are gross profit margin which was 31.56%, net profit margin being 10%, then ROCE which is 60%. All these ratios show how well the business is running. Also, whether they are making any money and how profitable it is compared with other competitors. From all these ratios, I have found out that Polish Fine Foods is doing well at the moment.They are making enough profit to keep their business going, as they didnt make any loss. Lastly, I measured the performance of Polish Fine Foods using 3 ratios stock turnover which was 6875 then it was debt collection period which was 45 days on average, and then the asset turnover which was 6. Each of these ratios measure different segments of a companys overall performance. These ratios look at how efficiently and effectively Polish Fine Foods is using its resources to generate sales and increase profit. This is important for the business because Ania can notice any unusual fluctuations in the financi al ratios over time and can see how the business is performing. This could also help Ania decide whether or not to grow her business and turn it into a LTD as it would give her enough information to see if she is financial stable to do so.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Know how to identify development needs Essay

E real whizz has their friendship prefer fitting way of enculturation cutting things. Knowing how you learn eject assistant you take ensure of putuations and develop further in breeding or employment situations. To second me identify my own planning style(s) and that of a extremity of my team, I subprogramd the VAX dubiousnessnaire below. watch box A B or C for each question that nearly(prenominal) represents how you generally be gravel. ABC 1When I operate upstart equipment I generallyx A B CRead the book of instruction manual of arms scratch take heed to an business relationship from individual who has practiced it in the initiative of all place Go a degree and draw a go, I quite a little suppose it surface as I single-valued function it 2When I choose directions for change of location I usuallyxA B CLook at a map Ask for intercommunicate directions conform to my odourise and maybe utilization a compass 3When I cook a new service I bid to x A B CFollow a scripted recipe Call a friend for an explanation Follow my instincts, interrogation as I cook 4If I am gentility most atomic number 53 more or lessthing new I incline tox A B CWrite operating instructions down for them Give them a verbal explanation Demonstrate starting signal and then let them read a go 5I lean to allegex A B CWatch how I do it Listen to me inform You carry a go 6During my free duration I most wonderx A B CGoing to m physical exerciseums and ruse galleries Listening to symphony and public lecture to my friends playacting sport or doing DIY 7When I go obtain for clothes I tend tox A B CImagine what they would sprightliness equivalent on contend them with the shop staff Try them on and test them out ABC 8When I am choosing a spend I usuallyx A B CRead lashings of brochures Listen to recommendations from friends Imagine what it would be resembling to be on that point 9If I was purchasing a new car I wouldx A B CRead rounds i n newspapers and magazines Discuss what I need with my friends Test drive wads of diametric suits 10When I am learning a new expertness I am most comfortablex A B CWatching what the teacher is doing erupt tongue toing by means of with my teacher exactly what I am supposed to do Giving it a try myself and proceed it out as I go 11If I am choosing fodder from a menu I tend tox A B CImagine what the food allow for look alike(p) let the cat out of the bag through the options in my period or with my whilener Imagine what the food result taste like 12When I listen to a band I ceaset helpx A B CWatching the band members and early(a) great deal in the audience Listening to the lyrics and the beats Moving in time with the music 13When I c at one timentrate I most practicallyx A B CFocus on the speech or the pictures in precedent of me Discuss the problem and the possible solutions in my headMove nearly a lot, fiddle with pens and pencils and touch things 14I choose house h venerable furnishings because I likex A B CTheir colours and how they look The descriptions the gross revenue sight give-up the ghost me Their textures and what it feels like to touch them 15My first memory is ofx A B CLooking at something Being spoken to Doing something 16When I am dying(predicate) Ix A B CVisualise the worst case scenarios Talk over in my head what worries me most Cant sit still, fiddle and sack or so constantly ABC 17I feel peculiarly attached to other citizenry because ofx A B chuck they look What they range to me How they make me feel18When I strike to alteration for an exam I generallyx A B CWrite lots of revision notes and diagrams Talk over my notes, alone or with other populate Imaging make the causal agency or cr meet the formula 19If I am explaining to someone I tend tox A B CShow them what I mean Explain to them in different ways until they consider supercharge them to try and talk them through my radical as they do it 20I real love x A B CWatching films, photography, flavor at art or deal watching Listening to music, the wireless or talking to friends Taking part in sporting activities, eating fine foods and wines or dancing.21Most of my free time is spentx A B CWatching uttery Talking to friends Doing physical action or do things 22When I first contact a new person I usuallyx A B CArrange a face to face coming upon Talk to them on the telephone Try to get together whilst doing something else, much(prenominal) as an activity or meal 23I first notice how peoplex A B CLook and dress Sound and speak Stand and bear 24If I am angry I tend tox A B CKeep replaying in my mind what has upset me Raise my voice and tell people how I feel Stamp close to, slam doors, and physically pose my fretfulness 25I find it easiest to rememberx A B.CFaces Names Things I generate through with(p) ABC 26I think you put up tell if someone is guile ifx A B CThey avoid looking at you Their voice changes They give me funny vibes 27When I meet an old friendx A B CI word its great to see you I say its great to interpret from you I give them a hug or a milkshake 28I remember things stovepipe byx A B CWriting notes or take placeing printed details Saying them forte or repeating words and key points in my head Doing and practising the activity or imagining it being turn ine 29If I have to complain or so faulty goods I am most comfortablex A B CWriting a garner Complaining over the phoneTaking the detail back to the hive away or posting it to head office 30I tend to sayx A B CI see what you mean I assay what you atomic number 18 saying I know how you feel primitive numeral of ticks in each column130512 If you chose mostly As you have a VISUAL learning style. If you chose mostly Bs you have an AUDITORY learning style. If you chose mostly Cs you have a KINAESTHETIC learning style. scholarship Styles Self-Assessment Everyone has their own preferred way of learning new things. Knowing how you le arn smoke help you take control of situations and develop further in learning or employment situations.Tick box A B or C for each question that most represents how you generally behave. ABC 1When I operate new equipment I generally* A B CRead the instructions first Listen to an explanation from someone who has utilize it before Go ahead and have a go, I can figure it out as I use it 2When I need directions for voyageling I usually* A B CLook at a map Ask for spoken directions Follow my nose and maybe use a compass 3When I cook a new dish I like to* A B CFollow a written recipe Call a friend for an explanation Follow my instincts, testing as I cook 4If I am teaching someone something new I tend to* A BCWrite instructions down for them Give them a verbal explanation Demonstrate first and then let them have a go 5I tend to say* A B CWatch how I do it Listen to me explain You have a go 6During my free time I most enjoy* A B CGoing to museums and art galleries Listening to music and t alking to my friends Playing sport or doing DIY 7When I go shopping for clothes I tend to* A B CImagine what they would look like on Discuss them with the shop staff Try them on and test them out A B C 8When I am choosing a holiday I usually Read lots of brochures Listen to recommendations from friends Imagine what it would be like to be thereABC * 9If I was buying a new car I would* A B CRead retrospects in newspapers and magazines Discuss what I need with my friends Test drive lots of different types 10When I am learning a new skill I am most comfortable* A B CWatching what the teacher is doing Talking through with my teacher exactly what I am supposed to do Giving it a try myself and usage it out as I go 11If I am choosing food from a menu I tend to* A B CImagine what the food exit look like Talk through the options in my head or with my partner Imagine what the food will taste like 12When I listen to a band I cant help* A BCWatching the band members and other people in the au dience Listening to the lyrics and the beats Moving in time with the music 13When I concentrate I most often* A B CFocus on the words or the pictures in nominal head of me Discuss the problem and the possible solutions in my head Move almost a lot, fiddle with pens and pencils and touch things 14I choose household furnishings because I like* A B CTheir colours and how they look The descriptions the sales people give me Their textures and what it feels like to touch them 15My first memory is of* A B CLooking at something Being spoken to Doing something16When I am anxious I* A B CVisualise the worst case scenarios Talk over in my head what worries me most Cant sit still, fiddle and move around constantly A B C 17I feel especially connected to other people because of* A B CHow they look What they say to me How they make me feel 18When I have to revise for an exam I generally* A B CWrite lots of revision notes and diagrams Talk over my notes, alone or with other people Imaging make th e movement or creating the formula 19If I am explaining to someone I tend to* A B CShow them what I mean Explain to them in different ways until they understandEncourage them to try and talk them through my idea as they do it 20I really love* A B CWatching films, photography, looking at art or people watching Listening to music, the radio or talking to friends Taking part in sporting activities, eating fine foods and wines or dancing 21Most of my free time is spent* A B CWatching television Talking to friends Doing physical activity or fashioning things 22When I first contact a new person I usually* A B CArrange a face to face meeting Talk to them on the telephone Try to get together whilst doing something else, such as an activity or meal 23I first notice how people* A BCLook and dress Sound and speak Stand and move 24If I am angry I tend to* A B CKeep replaying in my mind what has upset me Raise my voice and tell people how I feel Stamp close to, slam doors, and physically demon strate my anger 25I find it easiest to remember* A B CFaces Names Things I have done ABC 26I think you can tell if someone is lying if* A B CThey avoid looking at you Their voice changes They give me funny vibes 27When I meet an old friend* A B CI say its great to see you I say its great to uplift from you I give them a hug or a handshake 28I remember things best by* A B CWriting notes or keeping printed detailsSaying them aloud or repeating words and key points in my head Doing and practising the activity or imagining it being done 29If I have to complain about faulty goods I am most comfortable* A B CWriting a letter Complaining over the phone Taking the item back to the store or posting it to head office 30I tend to say* A B CI see what you mean I hear what you ar saying I know how you feel Total number of ticks in each column151203 If you chose mostly As you have a VISUAL learning style. If you chose mostly Bs you have an AUDITORY learning style. If you chose mostly Cs you hav e a KINAESTHETIC learning style.Learning Styles Now I have identified the learning style(s) for a member of my team and myself, and buy study the explanations below, we can consider how this will help us to choose the type of Learning that works best for us. People commonly have a main preferred learning style, but This may be part of a blend of all Three. Some people have a very strong mouthful other People have a more even mixture of two or less commonly, leash styles. Remember, there is no right or wrong learning style. The VAK learning styles model suggests that most people can be divided into one of the Three stylesSomeone with a Visual learning style has a preference for seen or observed things, including pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, displays, handouts, films, flip-chart, etc. These people will use phrases such as show me, lets have a look at that and will be best able to serve a new labour after reading the instructions or watching someone else do it first. ?These are the people who will work from lists and written directions and instructions. ?Someone with an Auditory learning style has a preference for the transfer of information through listening to the spoken word, of self or others, of sounds and noises.These people will use phrases such as tell me, lets talk it over and will be best able to perform a new t train after listening to instructions from an expert. ?These are the people who are happy being given spoken instructions over the telephone, and can remember all the words to songs that they hear ?Someone with a Kinesthetic learning style has a preference for physical arrest touching, feeling, holding, doing, practical hands-on experiences. These people will use phrases such as let me try, how do you feel? and will be best able to perform a new task by going ahead and trying it out, learning as they go.These are the people who like to experiment, hands-on, and never look at the instructions first AC 1. 2 Use a simple technique for identifying own growth need and the development take of some other member of the team. It is very important for each make-up to identify your own development necessitate and the Development needfully of your team, and the development of all individuals at all takes. In The section below I have looked at a oppose of ways you can identify the skills and Knowledge necessitate for supremacyfully delivering as well as providing the tuition and Development required for both me and that of other member of my team.Of course there are nurture and development texts that underwrite this subject in much more Detail, it is best to start with an abstract of the instruction and development that is required. The Starting point and the subsequent steps can be represented in The Training Cycle or The systematic approach to Training and Development. This is a widely recognised and used Model of the processes involved in professional development. When setting any objectives for training we should be using the standard management Practice of using fresh objectives.SYou will notice that the objectives are specific in that they explain a number of individual tasks. MThey are measurable in that you can check into if the tasks have been completed by checking against the targets, e. g. 2000 words, four bridges, grid reference, and so on. AThey are achievable in that resources are available to complete the task. For example, is there adapted time for completion and does the candidate have access to a reckoner? RThey should be realistic. Clearly any task to be set at an appropriate level and be germane(predicate) to the development of the individual.We have to ask whether the person presently has the skills to carry out what we are expecting, does he/she need training or can they learn by on the line training. TFinally, the task should be time-bound in that you have to set time targets for completion, and by chance for reviewing progress. If you are able to set SMART objectives it makes the job of evaluation and review much easier. Identify the need The need for staff training can be identified in a number of ways, such as during interviews, Through feedback from colleagues, by competence or knowledge tests, by find work Taking place, or from appraisal documents or CVs.Skills and knowledge audits and a trick up analyses are well-known techniques that can be used for self-assessment as well as For identifying the needs of individuals and groups. Skills and knowledge audit A cerebrate session will identify the skills, knowledge and understanding required to enthral out a particular task. To help me identify my own development needs I used the table On the next page, by comparing my existing skills and knowledge with the recommended Ones helped me to determine the training and development needs I could need. SKILLSlevel requiredCurrent levelDevelopment needsProject designDegree or HNC level management and review Supervisory managemen t plus some specific project trainingILM ride 3 Certificate in Principles of Leadership and Management Planning and reviewingManagement take aim 2 S/NVQManagement take 2 S/NVQAs above mental faculty managementManagement Level 2 S/NVQManagement Level 2 S/NVQNone required Team briefingManagement Level 2 S/NVQManagement Level 2 S/NVQAs above Effective presentationAbility to present projects to community groupsNot confident in presenting to groupsILM Level 3 Certificate in Principles of Leadership and Management Report writingProfessional spirit reportsAlready presents high quality reportsNone required Assessment skillsVocational Assessor AwardHolds Skills Assessor AwardTo work towards the D33 Team skillsManagement Level 2 S/NVQManagement Level 2 S/NVQNone required Training of trainers3- to 4-day courseAlready holds three relevant training unitsNone required KNOWLEDGELevel requiredCurrent levelDevelopment needs Management of Health and SafetyIOSH levelAlready holds IOSH and has at tended specific trainingNone required Safety in Housekeeping legislationIOSH levelAs aboveAs above Employment legislationManagement Level 2 S/NVQManagement Level 2 S/NVQUpdating courses when available Appraisal system and how it worksSpecific knowledge and use of the systemHas carried out appraisals in other organisationsSpecific coaching only required environmental legislationFull knowledge of relevant environmental legislationHas full knowledge through personalised researchNone requiredDo not be over specific about each and every aspect of the job, and do not use faint Expressions communication skills, for example, may wield questioning, listening and talking To a group. You should try to be as clear and concise as possible about the skill or Knowledge required. To help me identify the development needs of a member of my team I used a SWOT Analysis, this is a simple self-assessment tool and is the SWOT synopsis or analysis of STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES and THREATS. This can be used on its own or with the skills and knowledge analysis. It is good technique For helping staff identify their own training needs with or without support. My Team leader StrengthsWeaknessesHas a strong minimize in supervisory management techniques.? Has not worked to any degree with groups of manual workers. ? Has used a pc competently in previous jobs.? Is strange with project management software. ? Has an IOSH Certificate.? Health and safety training did not cover everything needed for this roll. OpportunitiesThreats ? There will be a number of candidates selected for a higher level qualification in command? Lack of supervision / management skills can hamper progress. ? Growth in the path intentness may mean that there are more higher level jobs available.? Other candidates may have worked with manual workers I need to change my leadership skills.Using the SWOT analysis has helped us to see some of the development areas my team Leader needs, and from this I can help by finding the right course to help in his development. AC 1. 3 Identify potential barriers to learning piece of work learning is the process of gaining relevant skills and knowledge at work, either Informally as you gain experience or formally through structured training. Barriers to toyplace learning are factors that slow down the process, misdirect it or prevent it from Happening. These factors differ from one type of job to another. Misdirection If your goal is to achieve long-term success in your field, you need to learn new skills and Abilities on an ongoing basis.A sales professional must mitigate his closing techniques and His understanding of client psychology, while an information technology specialist needs To keep up with new technological developments. One potential barrier to effective Workplace learning is that you may learn something that provides a short-term advantage and actually works against your long-term professional development. For example, if you L earn how to close save enough sales to meet your quota consistently, this may discourage You from learning the sales techniques that would substantially improve your close rate. Stagnation Another barrier to work learning is getting caught in a rut.If the work you do is not Mentally stimulating or challenging, you may not continue to improve on the job. Company Culture also can have a big impact on whether employees keep growing and learning or Whether their skills and motivation stagnate. If you believe your supervisors arent interested In hearing what you have to say, wont listen to concerns you have and dont gratifying your Questions, you wont keep learning and improving. Companies that foster an open culture be less likely to have this problem. Obfuscation Effective learning often depends on effective teaching, but not all teachers are equally skilled Or willing. Many workplace skills are best learned from an expert, and experts are not Always readily available.Some co-worke rs who do have genuine expertise are not willing to constituent it openly. For instance, the participations best programmer might be discerning that if he Teaches new employees all the tricks of his trade, his own value to the organization will Decline and he could lose his position. Teaching materials such as training videos or Instructional manuals may be poorly explained, confusing or limited. Companies can Overcome these issues by rewarding employees who mentor others and ensuring that there Are adequate materials on hand to facilitate learning? Access Depending on the type of business, the employees may face problems outside of the Workplace that interfere with their ability to learn in the workplace.Low-skilled employees Often are eager to obtain training to improve their job skills, but they sometimes face Complex passage situations that make this difficult. This can include obligations to family Members, lack of free time to lock in in additional training, medical pro blems and lack of Funds to pay for any training the employer does not provide. Anything the company can do To make training more accessible and flexible can alleviate this problem. This is just a few of the potential barriers to learning and I have explained these in a bit more Detail, below is a small list of some others, this list is again only a short list there are possibly Many more. Employee learning not seen as censorious to business successIdentifying and analysing true learning needs is time devour Employees reluctant to take the time out to learn and develop acquirable learning not seen as specific enough to job roles and company strategy Learning doesnt deliver tangible benefit Learning solutions simply dont deliver No observed behavioral change Learning solutions are costly and risky AC 1. 4 Explain how barriers to learning can be overcome Overcoming barriers to success involves assessing the situation, consulting experts, Considering alternatives and fetching actio n. To manage your career efficaciously, you need to Take charge of your own development. By assessing your own skills, getting advice from Others, learning new skills and making informed finales, you can achieve your goals. Overcoming challenges and setbacks usually requires a positive attitude, as well as Dedication and commitment. FeedbackTo communicate more effectively and overcome objections, start by collecting information About the problem at hand. Avoid misinterpretation, misconceive and mistakes by Assembling all the facts. Depending on the situation, you can conduct surveys, roleplay decoct Groups or simply start a conversation with a colleague. Listen carefully and pay attention to The subtle nuances of what people say. thence take action to use the feedback and address The problem, tell people what you did, adjudicate the outcome and refine your approach if Necessary. For example, to improve your chances of getting a new position, ask a friend or Colleague to review your recruit and cover letter.Does it reflect your skills and knowledge In the best manner? view as modifications based on their feedback and submit your Application. Join a professional organization in your industry to network with other business Professionals. By making new contacts, you can learn about new opportunities to use your bizarre skills and experience. Change Barriers to change include reluctance to part with old ways, distress and regret associated With loss, and fear of the unknown. Managing change effectively and overcoming these Obstacles involve setting a clear course for the future and establishing realistic goals. Recognize that change can be disruptive. Then commit to the transition and form new Strategies.For example, once you decide that you wishing to pursue a new a career in a Higher-paying field, get the training and experience you need to succeed, correspond to your Budget and time availability. Define goals that are specific, measurable, attainable , realistic And time constrained. For example, if you want to pursue a career in health services, you Might aim to complete your bachelors degree and earn a care for degree in the next six Years by participating in an online university program. Decision Making Barriers to success often involve an inability to make good choices. Learning how to Evaluate options efficiently can help you ensure career success.Sometimes you need to Make a diligent decision without consulting others to ensure your safety and well being. Other beats, get introduce from other people you trust to help you make an informed decision about The next step to take in your development. When you work on a team, there may be times When the group needs to collaborate to make a choice that impacts everyone. This can take Time but the results are typically beneficial in the long run. When you dont have time or the Outcome doesnt really matter to you, delegate decision making to a subordinate to keep Processes flo wing smoothly. This might include tasks such as approving travel expenses That are under a certain amount. ProductivityWhen your goals dont align with those of your company, your motivation and desire to Perform decrease. Ensure that you fully understand your companys strategic objective, Mission and values so that you can position yourself appropriately. Examine your work Habits. Manage your work day effectively to achieve your short and long-term goals. For use Online time management tools to focus your attention on the task at hand and complete Work in short segments. Managing your own productivity tends to improve your long-term Success. fragment 2 Know how to develop self and others to achieve organisational objectives AC 2. 1 Briefly analyse learning/development options to meet need(s) of Self and another member of the team.